Document



 
 UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 (Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
or
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                     to                     
Commission File No. 0-19731
 
 
GILEAD SCIENCES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
94-3047598
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California
94404
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 650-574-3000
 
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT:
 
Title of each class 
Name of each exchange on which registered 
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT: NONE
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes ¨    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer ¨
Non-Accelerated filer ¨
Smaller reporting company ¨
 (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes ¨    No x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant based upon the closing price of its Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2016 was $103,455,508,531.*
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock on February 16, 2017 was 1,307,066,900.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Specified portions of the registrant’s proxy statement, which will be filed with the Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2017 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be held on May 10, 2017, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Report.
*    Based on a closing price of $83.42 per share on June 30, 2016. Excludes 90,648,083 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock held by executive officers, directors and any stockholders whose ownership exceeds 5% of registrant’s common stock outstanding at June 30, 2016. Exclusion of such shares should not be construed to indicate that any such person possesses the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the registrant.
 




GILEAD SCIENCES, INC.
2016 Form 10-K Annual Report
Table of Contents

PART I
 
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
 
 
PART II
 
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
 
 
PART III
 
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
 
 
PART IV
 
Item 15
Item 16
 
 


We own or have rights to various trademarks, copyrights and trade names used in our business, including the following: GILEAD®, GILEAD SCIENCES®, AMBISOME®, CAYSTON®, COMPLERA®, DESCOVY®, EMTRIVA®, EPCLUSA®, EVIPLERA®, GENVOYA®, HARVONI®, HEPSERA®, LETAIRIS®, ODEFSEY®, RANEXA®, SOVALDI®, STRIBILD®, TRUVADA®, TYBOST®, VEMLIDY®, VIREAD®, VITEKTA®, VOLIBRIS® and ZYDELIG®. ATRIPLA® is a registered trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb & Gilead Sciences, LLC. LEXISCAN® is a registered trademark of Astellas U.S. LLC. MACUGEN® is a registered trademark of Eyetech, Inc. SUSTIVA® is a registered trademark of Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharma Company. TAMIFLU® is a registered trademark of Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. This report also includes other trademarks, service marks and trade names of other companies.





This Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbors created under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). Words such as “expect,” “anticipate,” “target,” “goal,” “project,” “hope,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “seek,” “estimate,” “continue,” “may,” “could,” “should,” “might,” variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements, including statements regarding overall trends, operating cost and revenue trends, liquidity and capital needs and other statements of expectations, beliefs, future plans and strategies, anticipated events or trends and similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations about future events. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Our actual results may differ materially from those suggested by these forward-looking statements for various reasons, including those identified in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K under the heading “Risk Factors.” Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements included in this report are made only as of the date hereof. Except as required under federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), we do not undertake, and specifically decline, any obligation to update any of these statements or to publicly announce the results of any revisions to any forward-looking statements after the distribution of this report, whether as a result of new information, future events, changes in assumptions or otherwise.

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PART I
ITEM  1.
BUSINESS
Overview
Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Gilead, we or us), incorporated in Delaware on June 22, 1987, is a research-based biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes innovative medicines in areas of unmet medical need. With each new discovery and investigational drug candidate, we strive to transform and simplify care for people with life-threatening illnesses around the world. We have operations in more than 30 countries worldwide, with headquarters in Foster City, California. Gilead’s primary areas of focus include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, hematology/oncology, cardiovascular and inflammation/respiratory diseases. We seek to add to our existing portfolio of products through our internal discovery and clinical development programs and through product acquisition and in-licensing strategies.
2016 Highlights
Over the past year, we continued to bring best-in-class drugs to market that advance the standard of care by offering enhanced modes of delivery, more convenient treatment regimens, improved resistance profiles, reduced side effects and greater efficacy. In the area of HIV, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission approved two tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based regimens: Odefsey® (emtricitabine 200 mg/rilpivirine 25 mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in certain patients and Descovy® (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg), a fixed-dose combination for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In the liver diseases area, we received FDA and European Commission approval of Epclusa® (sofosbuvir 400 mg/velpatasvir 100 mg), the first all-oral, pan-genotypic, single-tablet regimen for the treatment of adults with genotype 1-6 chronic HCV infection. Epclusa is also the first single-tablet regimen approved for the treatment of patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, without the need for ribavirin. We also received FDA approval of Vemlidy® (tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg), a once-daily treatment for adults with HBV infection with compensated liver disease. In the inflammation/respiratory area, we advanced filgotinib, a JAK1 inhibitor we are developing with Galapagos NV (Galapagos) to Phase 3 clinical trials for the potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. At the end of 2016, our research and development pipeline included 167 active clinical studies, of which 61 were Phase 3 clinical trials.
In addition to advancing treatment options across therapeutic areas, we also enabled access to our medications for people who need them around the world. We continued to expand access to our medicines in low- and middle-income countries by pursuing multiple strategies, including entering into collaborations with governments, generic manufacturers, regional business partners, policy makers, healthcare providers, patient groups and public health entities. Today, 10 million people are receiving Gilead HIV medicines in low- and middle-income countries. In 2016, we also entered into a partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide $20 million in funding and drug donations over five years to expand access to diagnostic services and treatment for visceral leishmaniasis, the world’s second-deadliest parasitic infectious disease that affects up to 300,000 people annually in resource-limited countries.
HIV
Our goal is to ensure that all HIV patients can choose a single-tablet regimen that is right for them. Single-tablet regimens allow patients to adhere to a fully suppressive course of therapy more easily and consistently, which is critical for the successful management of the disease. HIV patients are living longer, thus facing additional health challenges to those experienced by newly diagnosed patients. We are motivated to continue improving on existing treatment options. The need for efficacy together with improved long-term safety has driven our development programs and the design of the studies we have completed and those that are planned.
Our TAF single-tablet regimens seek to address the diverse needs of HIV patients worldwide. TAF is a novel targeted prodrug of tenofovir that has demonstrated high antiviral efficacy similar to and at a dose less than one-tenth that of Viread® (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TDF), as well as improvement in surrogate laboratory markers of renal and bone safety as compared to TDF in clinical trials in combination with other antiretroviral agents. With the launch of our two TAF-based single-tablet regimens, Genvoya® (elvitegravir 150mg/cobicistat 150 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir alafenamide 10 mg) and Odefsey, we now have five single-tablet regimens available for the treatment of HIV. Odefsey is currently the smallest pill of any single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV. Descovy, a fixed-dose combination for the treatment of HIV, also represents an important evolution in HIV care, as it is the first new HIV treatment backbone approved by FDA in more than a decade.
In addition, we are evaluating bictegravir/emtricitabine/TAF in Phase 3 studies for the treatment of HIV. We anticipate completing these studies in the third quarter of 2017.


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Liver Diseases
Our goal is to advance the treatment options and standard of care for the HCV market. With the approval of Sovaldi® (sofosbuvir 400 mg), compared to the prior standard of care of up to 48 weeks, the duration of treatment was shortened to as few as 12 weeks and the need for peg-interferon injections in certain viral genotype populations was reduced or eliminated completely. Harvoni® (ledipasvir 90 mg/sofosbuvir 400 mg) is the first once-daily single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HCV genotype 1-infected patients, the most prevalent genotype in the United States. In 2016, we received approval of Epclusa, the first all-oral, pan-genotypic, single-tablet regimen for the treatment of adults with genotype 1-6 chronic HCV infection. Epclusa is also the first single-tablet regimen approved for the treatment of patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, without the need for ribavirin. In the fourth quarter of 2016, we submitted a new drug application to FDA for the approval of an investigational, once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing sofosbuvir 400 mg, velpatasvir 100 mg and voxilaprevir 100 mg (SOF/VEL/VOX), for the treatment of HCV. The product, if approved, would offer an effective cure for patients who have failed prior therapy with other highly effective regimens.
In 2016, we received FDA approval of Vemlidy, a once-daily treatment for adults with HBV infection with compensated liver disease.
We are also evaluating selonsertib, an investigational small-molecule inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, or ASK-1, for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in Phase 3 clinical trials. Based on the Phase 2 results, we intend to evaluate selonsertib in patients with NASH and moderate to severe fibrosis. We have two other compounds with different mechanisms currently in two Phase 2 studies in patients with NASH and fibrosis - GS-9674, an FXR agonist, and GS-0976, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. Pending demonstration of single agent efficacy and safety in these Phase 2 studies, we plan to initiate combination studies with the three agents in 2017.
Hematology/Oncology
In the hematology/oncology area, we continued to progress our product candidates through clinical trials. Idelalisib, a PI3K delta inhibitor, is in Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of patients with relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We are also evaluating GS-5745, an investigational anti-MMP9 antibody, in a Phase 3 study for the treatment of gastric cancer.
Inflammation/Respiratory
In 2016, we closed on a license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos, a clinical-stage biotechnology company based in Belgium, for the development and commercialization of filgotinib, a JAK1 inhibitor being evaluated in Phase 3 trials for three inflammatory disease indications - rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. In 2017, we also expect to initiate Phase 2 clinical trials evaluating filgotinib in combination with GS-9876, a Syk inhibitor, and GS-4059, a BTK inhibitor, for the potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Our Products
HIV
Descovy is an oral formulation indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age or older. Descovy is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medications, Emtriva® (emtricitabine) and TAF. Descovy was approved by FDA and the European Commission in April 2016.
Odefsey is an oral formulation dosed once a day for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in certain patients. Odefsey is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medications, Emtriva and TAF, and rilpivirine marketed by Janssen Sciences Ireland UC (Janssen), one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson. Odefsey represents the smallest pill of any single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV. Odefsey was approved by FDA in March 2016 and the European Commission in June 2016.
Genvoya is an oral formulation dosed once a day for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Genvoya is a single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV and is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medicines, Vitekta® (elvitegravir), Tybost® (cobicistat), Emtriva and TAF.
Stribild® (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TDF) is an oral formulation dosed once a day for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naive adults. Stribild is a single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV and is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medications, Vitekta, Tybost, Viread and Emtriva.

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Complera®/Eviplera® (emtricitabine/rilpivirine/TDF) is an oral formulation dosed once a day for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. The product, marketed in the United States as Complera and in Europe as Eviplera, is a single-tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV and is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medications, Viread and Emtriva, and Janssen’s rilpivirine.
Atripla® (efavirenz/emtricitabine/TDF) is an oral formulation dosed once a day for the treatment of HIV infection in adults. Atripla is a single-tablet regimen for HIV intended as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with other antiretrovirals. It is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medications, Viread and Emtriva, and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company’s (BMS’s) efavirenz.
Truvada® (emtricitabine/TDF) is an oral formulation dosed once a day as part of combination therapy to treat HIV infection in adults. It is a fixed-dose combination of our antiretroviral medications, Viread and Emtriva. FDA also approved Truvada, in combination with safer sex practices, to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in adults at high risk; a strategy called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Viread is an oral formulation of a nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor, dosed once a day as part of combination therapy to treat HIV infection in patients two years of age and older. The European Commission also approved the use of Viread in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1-infected adolescent patients aged two to less than 18 years with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance or toxicities precluding the use of first-line pediatric agents. Viread is also approved for the treatment of HBV.
Emtriva is an oral formulation of a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor, dosed once a day as part of combination therapy to treat HIV infection in adults. In the United States and Europe, Emtriva is also available as an oral solution approved as part of combination therapy to treat HIV infection in children.
Tybost is a pharmacokinetic enhancer dosed once a day that boosts blood levels of certain HIV medicines. Tybost is indicated as a boosting agent for the HIV protease inhibitors atazanavir and darunavir as part of antiretroviral combination therapy in adults with HIV-1 infection.
Vitekta is an oral formulation of an integrase inhibitor, dosed once a day as part of combination therapy to treat HIV infection in adults without known mutations associated with resistance to elvitegravir, the active ingredient of Vitekta. Vitekta is indicated for use as part of HIV treatment regimens that include a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor.
Liver Diseases
Vemlidy is an oral formulation of a once-daily treatment of TAF for adults with HBV infection with compensated liver disease. Vemlidy was approved by FDA in November 2016 and the European Commission in January 2017.
Epclusa is an oral formulation of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir and the first pan-genotypic, single-tablet regimen for the treatment of adults with genotype 1-6 chronic infection. Epclusa is also the first single-tablet regimen approved for the treatment of patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, without the need for ribavirin. Epclusa for 12 weeks was approved in patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A), and in combination with ribavirin for patients with decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B or C). Epclusa was approved by FDA in June 2016 and the European Commission in July 2016.
Harvoni is an oral formulation of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir dosed once a day for the treatment of genotypes 1, 4, 5 and 6, HCV/HIV-1 co-infection, HCV genotype 1 and 4 liver transplant recipients, and genotype 1-infected patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In Europe, Harvoni is also indicated for certain patients with HCV genotype 4 infection, HCV genotype 3 infection with cirrhosis and/or prior treatment failure and those with HCV/HIV-1 co-infection.
Sovaldi is an oral formulation of sofosbuvir dosed once a day for the treatment of HCV as a component of a combination antiviral treatment regimen. Sovaldi’s efficacy has been established in patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 or 4 infection (in the United States and Europe) and genotypes 5 and 6 infection (in Europe), including those with hepatocellular carcinoma meeting Milan criteria (awaiting liver transplantation) and those with HCV/HIV-1 co-infection.
Viread is an oral formulation of a nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor, dosed once a day for the treatment of HBV in adults with compensated and decompensated liver disease. We licensed to GlaxoSmithKline Inc. (GSK) the rights to commercialize Viread for the treatment of HBV in China, Japan and Saudi Arabia. In 2012, the European Commission approved the use of Viread for the treatment of HBV infection in adolescent patients aged 12 to less than 18 years with compensated liver disease and evidence of immune active disease. Viread is also approved for the treatment of HIV infection.
Hepsera® (adefovir dipivoxil) is an oral formulation of a nucleotide analog polymerase inhibitor, dosed once a day to treat HBV in patients 12 years of age and older. We licensed to GSK the rights to commercialize Hepsera for the treatment of HBV in Asia Pacific, Latin America and certain other territories.

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Hematology/Oncology
Zydelig® (idelalisib) is a first-in-class PI3K delta inhibitor for the treatment of certain blood cancers. In the United States, Zydelig is approved in combination with rituximab for patients with relapsed CLL for whom rituximab alone would be considered appropriate therapy and as monotherapy for patients with relapsed follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. In the European Union, Zydelig is approved for the treatment of CLL and FL.
Cardiovascular
Letairis® (ambrisentan) is an oral formulation of an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group 1) in patients with WHO Class II or III symptoms to improve exercise capacity and delay clinical worsening. We sublicensed to GSK the rights to ambrisentan, marketed by GSK as Volibris® (ambrisentan), for PAH in territories outside of the United States.
Ranexa® (ranolazine) is an extended-release tablet for the treatment of chronic angina. We have licensed to Menarini International Operations Luxembourg SA the rights to Ranexa in territories outside of the United States.
Lexiscan® (regadenoson) injection is indicated for use as a pharmacologic stress agent in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), a test that detects and characterizes coronary artery disease, in patients unable to undergo adequate exercise stress. Astellas US LLC (Astellas) has exclusive rights to manufacture and sell regadenoson under the name Lexiscan in the United States. Rapidscan Pharma Solutions, Inc. (RPS) holds the exclusive right to manufacture and sell regadenoson under the name Rapiscan® in Europe and certain territories outside the United States. We receive royalties from Astellas and RPS for sales in these territories.
Inflammation/Respiratory
Cayston® (aztreonam for inhalation solution) is an inhaled antibiotic for the treatment of respiratory systems in cystic fibrosis patients seven years of age and older with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa).
Tamiflu® (oseltamivir phosphate) is an oral antiviral available in capsule form for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B. Tamiflu is approved for the treatment of influenza in children and adults in more than 60 countries, including the United States, Japan and the European Union. Tamiflu is also approved for the prevention of influenza in children and adults in the United States, Japan and the European Union. We developed Tamiflu with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd (together with Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Roche). Roche has the exclusive right to manufacture and sell Tamiflu worldwide, subject to its obligation to pay us royalties based on a percentage of the net sales of Tamiflu.
Other
AmBisome® (amphotericin B liposome for injection) is a proprietary liposomal formulation of amphotericin B, an antifungal agent to treat serious invasive fungal infections caused by various fungal species in adults. Our corporate partner, Astellas Pharma US, Inc., promotes and sells AmBisome in the United States and Canada, and we promote and sell AmBisome in Europe, Australia and New Zealand.
Macugen® (pegaptanib sodium injection) is an intravitreal injection of an anti-angiogenic oligonucleotide for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Macugen was developed by Eyetech Inc. (Eyetech) using technology licensed from us and is now promoted in the United States by Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Valeant), which acquired Eyetech in 2012. Valeant holds the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell Macugen in the United States, and Pfizer Inc. (Pfizer) holds the exclusive right to manufacture and sell Macugen in the rest of the world. We receive royalties from Valeant and Pfizer based on worldwide sales of Macugen.
Antiviral product sales, which include sales of our HIV and other antiviral products and our HCV products, were $27.7 billion, $30.2 billion and $22.8 billion in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and represented 91% of our total revenues in 2016, 93% of our total revenues in 2015 and 92% of our total revenues in 2014. Sales of our other products were $2.2 billion, $1.9 billion and $1.7 billion in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and represented 7% of our total revenues in 2016, 6% of our total revenues in 2015 and 7% of our total revenues in 2014. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Item 7 and Note 16, Segment Information of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to sales by product.

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Commercialization and Distribution
We have U.S. and international commercial sales operations, with marketing subsidiaries in over 30 countries. Our products are marketed through our commercial teams and/or in conjunction with third-party distributors and corporate partners. Our commercial teams promote our products through direct field contact with physicians, hospitals, clinics and other healthcare providers. We generally grant our third-party distributors the exclusive right to promote our product in a territory for a specified period of time. Most of our agreements with these distributors provide for collaborative efforts between the distributor and Gilead in obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval for the product in the specified territory.
We sell and distribute Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Vemlidy, Descovy, Odefsey, Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Complera, Viread, Genvoya, Emtriva, Tybost, Vitekta, Ranexa, AmBisome, Zydelig and Hepsera in the United States exclusively through the wholesale channel. Our product sales to three large wholesalers, McKesson Corporation, AmerisourceBergen Corporation and Cardinal Health, Inc. each accounted for more than 10% of total revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014. On a combined basis, in 2016, these wholesalers accounted for approximately 88% of our product sales in the United States and approximately 56% of our total worldwide revenues. Letairis and Cayston are distributed exclusively by specialty pharmacies. These specialty pharmacies dispense medications for complex or chronic conditions that require a high level of patient education and ongoing counseling. We sell and distribute Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Vemlidy, Descovy, Odefsey, Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Eviplera, Viread, Emtriva, Tybost, Vitekta, Genvoya, Ranexa, AmBisome, Zydelig and Hepsera in Europe and countries outside the United States where the product is approved, either through our commercial teams, third-party distributors or corporate partners.
U.S. Patient Access
We make it a priority to increase access to our medicines for people who can benefit from them, regardless of their ability to pay. In the United States, our U.S. patient support and assistance programs help patients and their families understand their access options. We assist patients with understanding insurance coverage, financial assistance options and eligibility for free treatment. We make our therapies accessible for uninsured individuals and those who need financial assistance. We also support programs for those unable to afford the co-payments associated with health insurance programs. Half of all patients taking our HIV medicines in the United States already receive them through federal and state programs at substantially discounted prices. We also have a long history of working with state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) to provide lower pricing for our HIV medicines. The price freeze we instituted for ADAPs in 2008 was extended in 2013 through the end of 2017, providing important support to these critical programs as they evolve in the changing U.S. healthcare environment.
Developing World Access
Under our Gilead Access Program, established in 2003, certain of our products for HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and visceral leishmaniasis are available at substantially reduced prices in the developing world. Today, 10 million people are receiving Gilead HIV medicines in low- and middle-income countries. We have entered into a number of collaborations related to access to our products in the developing world, which include:
Licenses with Generic Manufacturers. We have entered into non-exclusive license agreements with Indian generic manufacturers, granting them rights to produce and distribute generic versions of certain of our HIV, HCV and HBV products to low-income countries around the world, which include India and many countries in our Gilead Access Program.
Medicines Patent Pool (the MPP). We entered into an agreement with the MPP, an organization that was established by the United Nations to increase global access to high-quality, low-cost antiretroviral therapy through the sharing of patents. We granted the MPP a non-exclusive license to identify generic pharmaceutical manufacturers in India who specialize in high-quality production of generic medicines and granted sublicenses to those Indian manufacturers to manufacture and distribute generic versions of our antiretrovirals in the developing world. Sublicensees through the MPP will be free to develop combination products and pediatric formulations of our HIV medicines.
Special Partnerships. We work with national governments and local organizations to increase access to our HIV and HCV medicines and strengthen healthcare systems. For example, we have established an agreement with the National AIDS Program of Myanmar to donate a generic version of our Atripla to 2,000 people living with HIV in the country, as well as provide HIV educational activities and financial support to strengthen the country’s health system. In Tanzania, we launched an HIV “test-and-treat” demonstration project with the Holy See’s Good Samaritan Foundation. The program’s goal is to enable screening of 120,000 patients for HIV and provide HIV therapy to 20,000 HIV-positive individuals over five years. In Egypt, we have agreed to provide Sovaldi and Harvoni to the Egyptian Ministry of Health at a significantly reduced price. In addition, in partnership with the Ministry of Health, we invest in local HCV medical education and prevention efforts, as well as screening and patient awareness initiatives. In Georgia, we established an agreement with the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia to help eliminate HCV in the country. The

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project aims to reduce the number of Georgians infected with HCV and lower the rate of new infections through universal screening, treatment, prevention and surveillance.
Competition
Our marketed products target a number of areas, including HIV, liver diseases, cardiovascular, hematology/oncology, inflammation/respiratory and other diseases. There are many commercially available products for the treatment of these diseases. We face significant competition from large global pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, specialized pharmaceutical firms and generic drug manufacturers. Our products compete with other available products based primarily on efficacy, safety, tolerability, acceptance by doctors, ease of patient compliance, ease of use, price, insurance and other reimbursement coverage, distribution and marketing. As our products mature, private insurers and government payers often reduce the amount they will reimburse patients, which increases pressure on us to reduce prices. Further, as new branded or generic products are introduced into major markets, our ability to maintain pricing and market share may be affected.
Our HIV Products
The HIV landscape is becoming more competitive and complex as treatment trends continue to evolve. A growing number of HIV drugs are currently sold or are in advanced stages of clinical development. Competition from current and expected competitors may erode the revenues we receive from sales of our HIV products. Our HIV products compete primarily with products from ViiV Healthcare (ViiV), which markets fixed-dose combination products that compete with Descovy, Odefsey, Genvoya, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada. For example, two products marketed by ViiV, Tivicay (dolutegravir), an integrase inhibitor, and Triumeq (dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine), a single-tablet antiretroviral regimen, have adversely impacted sales of our HIV products. In addition, ViiV’s lamivudine competes with emtricitabine, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of Emtriva and a component of Descovy, Odefsey, Genvoya, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada. For Tybost, we compete with ritonavir, marketed by AbbVie Inc. (AbbVie). Most of our HIV products contain TAF, TDF and/or emtrictabine, which belong to the nucleoside class of antiviral therapeutics. If the treatment paradigm for HIV changes, our market share would likely decline.
We also face competition from generic HIV products. Generic versions of lamivudine and Combivir (lamivudine and zidovudine) are available in the United States and certain other countries. Generic versions of Sustiva (efavirenz), a component of our Atripla, are now available in Canada and Europe and we anticipate competition from generic efavirenz in the United States in December 2017. We have observed some pricing pressure related to the Sustiva component of our Atripla sales. In addition, TDF, one of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada, and the main active pharmaceutical ingredient in Viread, is expected to face generic competition in the United States, the European Union and other countries in 2017. Because emtricitabine, the other active pharmaceutical ingredient of Truvada, faced generic competition in the European Union in 2016, Truvada is also expected to face generic competition in the European Union and other countries outside of the United States in 2017.
Our Liver Diseases Products
We continue to face increased competition in the HCV market. Our HCV products, Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi, compete with Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir tablets co-packaged with dasabuvir tablets) and Viekira XR (dasabuvir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir) marketed by AbbVie, Zepatier (elbasvir and grazoprevir) marketed by Merck & Co. Inc. (Merck), Daklinza (daclastavir) marketed by BMS and Olysio (simeprevir) marketed by Janssen Therapeutics. We also expect new HCV products to be launched by competitors. Competition from current and expected competitors may negatively impact our ability to maintain pricing and our HCV market share. We expect pricing pressure in the HCV market to continue.
Our HBV products, Vemlidy, Viread and Hepsera, face competition from existing and expected therapies for treating patients with HBV. Our HBV products face competition from Baraclude (entecavir), an oral nucleoside analog marketed by BMS, as well as generic entecavir. Our HBV products also compete with Tyzeka/Sebivo (telbivudine), an oral nucleoside analog marketed by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation (Novartis).
Our Cardiovascular Products
Letairis competes with Tracleer (bosentan) and Opsumit (macitentan) marketed by Actelion Pharmaceuticals US, Inc. and also with Adcirca (tadalafil) marketed by United Therapeutics Corporation and Pfizer.
Ranexa competes predominantly with generic compounds from three distinct classes of drugs for the treatment of chronic angina in the United States, including generic and/or branded beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and long-acting nitrates. In addition, surgical treatments and interventions such as coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention can be another option for angina patients, which may be perceived by healthcare practitioners as preferred methods to treat the cardiovascular disease that underlies and causes angina.
There are numerous marketed generic and/or branded pharmacologic stress agents that compete with Lexiscan.

8



Our Hematology/Oncology Products
Zydelig competes with Imbruvica (ibrutinib)‎ marketed by Pharmacyclics, Inc., Gazyva (obinutuzumab) marketed by Genentech (a member of the Roche Group) and Treanda (bendamustine hydrochloride) marketed by Cephalon, Inc.
Our Inflammation/Respiratory Products
Cayston competes primarily with Tobi (tobramycin inhalation solution), an inhaled medication marketed by Novartis for the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients whose lungs contain P. aeruginosa, a bacterial infection.
Tamiflu competes with Relenza (zanamivir), an influenza neuraminidase inhibitor marketed by GSK, and products sold by generic competitors.
Our Other Products
AmBisome competes with Vfend (voriconazole) marketed by Pfizer and caspofungin, a product developed by Merck that is marketed as Cancidas in the United States and as Caspofungin elsewhere. AmBisome also competes with other lipid-based amphotericin B products, including Abelcet (amphotericin B lipid complex injection), sold by Enzon Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in the United States, Canada and Japan and by Zeneus Pharma Ltd. in Europe; Amphotec (amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex for injection), sold by Three Rivers Pharmaceuticals, LLC worldwide; and Anfogen (amphotericin B liposomal), sold by Genpharma, S.A. in Argentina. BMS and numerous generic manufacturers sell conventional amphotericin B, which also competes with AmBisome. In addition, we are aware of at least three lipid formulations that claim similarity to AmBisome becoming available outside of the United States. These formulations may reduce market demand for AmBisome. Furthermore, the manufacture of lipid formulations of amphotericin B is very complex, and if any of these formulations are found to be unsafe, sales of AmBisome may be negatively impacted by association.
In addition, a number of companies are pursuing the development of technologies which are competitive with our existing products or research programs. These competing companies include specialized pharmaceutical firms and large pharmaceutical companies acting either independently or together with other pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private organizations conducting research may seek patent protection and may establish collaborative arrangements for competitive products and programs. If any of these competitors gain market share on our products, it could adversely affect our results of operations and stock price.
Collaborative Relationships
As part of our business strategy, we establish collaborations with other companies, universities and medical research institutions to assist in the clinical development and/or commercialization of certain of our products and product candidates and to provide support for our research programs. We also evaluate opportunities for acquiring products or rights to products and technologies that are complementary to our business from other companies, universities and medical research institutions. For more information regarding certain of these relationships, including their ongoing financial and accounting impact on our business, see Note 10, Collaborative Arrangements of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Commercial Collaborations
Although we currently have a number of collaborations with corporate partners for the manufacture, sale, distribution and/or marketing of our products in various territories worldwide, the following commercial collaborations are those that are most significant to us from a financial statement perspective and where significant ongoing collaboration activity exists.
BMS
North America
In 2004, we entered into a collaboration arrangement with BMS to develop and commercialize a single-tablet regimen containing our Truvada and BMS’s Sustiva (efavirenz) in the United States. This combination was approved for use in the United States in 2006 and is sold under the brand name Atripla. We and BMS structured this collaboration as a joint venture that operates as a limited liability company named Bristol-Myers Squibb & Gilead Sciences, LLC, which we consolidate. We and BMS granted royalty-free sublicenses to the joint venture for the use of our respective company owned technologies and, in return, were granted a license by the joint venture to use any intellectual property that results from the collaboration. In 2006, we and BMS amended the joint venture’s collaboration agreement to allow the joint venture to sell Atripla in Canada. The economic interests of the joint venture held by us and BMS (including share of revenues and out-of-pocket expenses) are based on the portion of the net selling price of Atripla attributable to efavirenz and Truvada. Since the net selling price for Truvada may change over time relative to the net selling price of efavirenz, both our and BMS’s respective economic interests in the joint venture may vary annually.

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We and BMS shared marketing and sales efforts. Starting in the second quarter of 2011, except for a limited number of activities that are jointly managed, the parties no longer coordinate detailing and promotional activities in the United States, and the parties have reduced their joint promotional efforts since we launched Complera in August 2011 and Stribild in August 2012. The parties continue to collaborate on activities such as manufacturing, regulatory, compliance and pharmacovigilance. The daily operations of the joint venture are governed by several joint committees formed by both BMS and Gilead. We are responsible for accounting, financial reporting, tax reporting, manufacturing and product distribution for the joint venture. Both parties provide their respective bulk active pharmaceutical ingredients to the joint venture at their approximate market value. The agreement will continue until terminated by the mutual agreement of the parties. In addition, either party may terminate the other party’s participation in the collaboration within 30 days after the launch of at least one generic version of such other party’s single agent products (or the double agent products). The terminating party then has the right to continue to sell Atripla and become the continuing party, but will be obligated to pay the terminated party certain royalties for a three-year period following the effective date of the termination. The loss of exclusivity in the United States for Sustiva is expected in December 2017.
As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, the joint venture held efavirenz active pharmaceutical ingredient which it purchased from BMS at BMS’s estimated net selling price of efavirenz in the U.S. market. These amounts were primarily included in Inventories on our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
Europe
In 2007, Gilead Sciences Ireland UC, our wholly-owned subsidiary, and BMS entered into a collaboration agreement under which we and BMS commercialize and distribute Atripla in the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (collectively, the European Territory). The parties formed a limited liability company which we consolidate, to manufacture Atripla for distribution in the European Territory using efavirenz that it purchases from BMS at BMS’s estimated net selling price of efavirenz in the European Territory. We are responsible for manufacturing, product distribution, inventory management and warehousing. Through our local subsidiaries, we have primary responsibility for order fulfillment, collection of receivables, customer relations and handling of sales returns in all the territories where we and BMS promote Atripla. In general, the parties share revenues and out-of-pocket expenses in proportion to the net selling prices of the components of Atripla, Truvada and efavirenz.
Starting in 2012, except for a limited number of activities that are jointly managed, the parties no longer coordinate detailing and promotional activities in the European Territory. We are responsible for accounting, financial reporting and tax reporting for the collaboration. As of December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2015, efavirenz purchased from BMS at BMS’s estimated net selling price of efavirenz in the European Territory is primarily included in Inventories on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The parties also formed a limited liability company to hold the marketing authorization for Atripla in the European Territory. We have primary responsibility for regulatory activities. In the major market countries, both parties have agreed to independently continue to use commercially reasonable efforts to promote Atripla.
The agreement will terminate upon the expiration of the last-to-expire patent which affords market exclusivity to Atripla or one of its components in the European Territory. In addition, since December 31, 2013, either party may terminate the agreement for any reason and such termination will be effective two calendar quarters after notice of termination. The non-terminating party has the right to continue to sell Atripla and become the continuing party, but will be obligated to pay the terminating party certain royalties for a three-year period following the effective date of the termination. In the event the continuing party decides not to sell Atripla, the effective date of the termination will be the date Atripla is withdrawn in each country or the date on which a third party assumes distribution of Atripla, whichever is earlier.
Janssen
In 2009, we entered into a collaboration agreement with Janssen to develop and commercialize a fixed-dose combination of our Truvada and Janssen’s rilpivirine. The agreement was amended in 2011, 2013 and 2014. The combination was approved in the United States and European Union in 2011 and is sold under the brand name Complera in the United States and Eviplera in the European Union. The 2014 amendment expanded the collaboration to include another single-tablet regimen containing Janssen’s rilpivirine and our emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (Odefsey). Under the agreement, Janssen granted us an exclusive license to Complera/Eviplera and Odefsey worldwide but has the right to distribute both combination products in 18 countries including Mexico, Russia and Japan. Neither party is restricted from combining its drugs with any other drug products except those which are similar to the components of Complera/Eviplera and Odefsey.

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We are responsible for manufacturing Complera/Eviplera and Odefsey and have the lead role in registration, distribution and commercialization of both products except in the countries where Janssen distributes. Janssen has exercised a right to co-detail the combination product in some of the countries where Gilead is the selling party. The selling party sets the price of the products and the parties share revenues based on the ratio of the net selling prices of the parties’ component(s), subject to certain restrictions and adjustments. We retain a specified percentage of Janssen’s share of revenues, up to 30% in major markets.
Either party may terminate the collaboration agreement with respect to a product and a country if the product is withdrawn from the market in such country or with respect to a product in all countries if the other party materially breaches the agreement with respect to a product. The agreement and the parties’ obligation to share revenues will expire on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis as Janssen patents providing exclusivity for the product expire or, if later, on the tenth anniversary of the commercial launch for such product. We may terminate the agreement without cause with respect to the countries where we sell the products in which case Janssen has the right to become the selling party for such country if the product has launched but has been on the market for fewer than 10 years.
Japan Tobacco
In 2005, Japan Tobacco Inc. (Japan Tobacco) granted us exclusive rights to develop and commercialize elvitegravir, a novel HIV integrase inhibitor, in all countries of the world, excluding Japan, where Japan Tobacco retained such rights. Under the agreement, we are responsible for seeking regulatory approval in our territories and are required to use diligent efforts to commercialize elvitegravir for the treatment of HIV infection. We bear all costs and expenses associated with such commercialization efforts.
We received approval of Stribild (an elvitegravir-containing product) from FDA in August 2012 and from the European Commission in May 2013. We received approval of Genvoya (an elvitegravir-containing product) from FDA and the European Commission in November 2015.
The agreement and our obligation to pay royalties to Japan Tobacco will terminate on a product-by-product basis as patents providing exclusivity for the product expire or, if later, on the tenth anniversary of commercial launch for such product. We may terminate the agreement for any reason in which case the license granted by Japan Tobacco to us would terminate. Either party may terminate the agreement in response to a material breach by the other party.
Research Collaborations
We have a number of collaborations with partners for the research and development (R&D) of certain compounds and drug candidates. None of our research collaborations are significant to us from a financial statement perspective.
Research and Development
Our R&D philosophy and strategy is to develop best-in-class drugs that improve safety or efficacy for unmet medical needs. We intend to continue committing significant resources to internal R&D opportunities and external business development activity.
Our product development efforts cover a wide range of medical conditions, including HIV/AIDS, liver diseases such as HCV and HBV, hematology/oncology, cardiovascular and inflammation/respiratory diseases. We have research scientists in Foster City, Fremont, San Dimas and Oceanside, California; Seattle, Washington; and Alberta, Canada engaged in the discovery and development of new molecules and technologies that we hope will lead to the approval of new medicines addressing unmet needs.
The development of our product candidates is subject to various risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties include our ability to enroll patients in clinical trials, the possibility of unfavorable results of our clinical trials, the need to modify or delay our clinical trials or to perform additional trials and the risk of failing to obtain regulatory approvals. As a result, our product candidates may never be successfully commercialized. Drug development is inherently risky and many product candidates fail during the drug development process.

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Below is a summary of our key product candidates and their corresponding current stages of development.
Product Candidates for the Treatment of HIV
Product Candidates
 
Description
Products in Phase 3
 
 
Bictegravir/F/TAF
 
A single-tablet regimen of bictegravir, a non-boosted integrase inhibitor, and F/TAF is being evaluated for the treatment of HIV infection.
Descovy
 
Descovy is being evaluated for PrEP.
Product in Phase 1
 
 
GS-9620
 
GS-9620, a TLR-7 agonist, is being evaluated for the treatment of HIV infection.
Product Candidates for the Treatment of Liver Diseases
Product Candidates
 
Description
Market Applications Pending
 
 
Single-tablet regimen of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir and voxilaprevir
 
A single-tablet regimen of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir and voxilaprevir, a pan-genotypic NS3 protease inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of HCV.
Product in Phase 3
 
 
Selonsertib
 
Selonsertib, an ASK-1 inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of NASH.
Products in Phase 2
 
 
GS-9620
 
GS-9620, a TLR-7 agonist, is being evaluated for the treatment of HBV.
Selonsertib
 
Selonsertib, an ASK-1 inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis.
GS-9674
 
GS-9674, a FXR agonist, is being evaluated for the treatment of NASH, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis.
GS-0976
 
GS-0976, an ACC inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of NASH.

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Product Candidates for the Treatment of Hematology/Oncology
 
Product Candidates
 
Description
Products in Phase 3
 
 
Idelalisib
 
Idelalisib, a PI3K delta inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of relapsed refractory CLL.
GS-5745
 
GS-5745, a MMP9 mAb inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of gastric cancer.
Products in Phase 2
 
 
Entospletinib
 
Entospletinib, a Syk inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of hematological malignancies and acute myeloid leukemia.
GS-4059
 
GS-4059, a BTK inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of B-cell malignancies.
Products in Phase 1
 
 
GS-5745
 
GS-5745, a MMP9 mAb inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of solid tumors.
GS-5829
 
GS-5829, a BET inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of solid tumors.
Product Candidates for the Treatment of Inflammation/Respiratory Diseases
Product Candidates
 
Description
Product in Phase 3
 
 
Filgotinib
 
Filgotinib, a JAK1 inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Products in Phase 2
 
 
Filgotinib
 
Filgotinib, a JAK1 inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
Entospletinib
 
Entospletinib, a Syk inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease.
Presatovir
 
Presatovir, a fusion inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus.
GS-5745
 
GS-5745, a MMP9 mAb inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of cystic fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
GS-9876
 
GS-9876, a Syk inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Other Product Candidates
Product Candidates
 
Description
Product in Phase 2
 
 
GS-5734
 
GS-5734, a Nuc inhibitor, is being evaluated for the treatment of Ebola virus infection.
In total, our R&D expenses were $5.1 billion for 2016, $3.0 billion for 2015 and $2.9 billion for 2014. R&D expenses increased 69% in 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to the overall progression of clinical studies, including ongoing milestone payments, our purchase of an FDA priority review voucher, up-front collaboration expenses related to our license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos and our purchase of Nimbus Apollo, Inc. (Nimbus). We also recorded in-process R&D impairment charges related to momelotinib and simtuzumab in 2016.
In addition to our internal discovery and clinical development programs, we seek to add to our portfolio of products through product acquisitions, licenses and collaborations.
In January 2016, we closed on a license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos, a clinical-stage biotechnology company based in Belgium, for the development and commercialization of filgotinib, a JAK1-selective inhibitor being investigated for inflammatory disease indications. Filgotinib is in Phase 3 clinical trials for the potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

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In May 2016, we acquired Nimbus, a privately held company, and its ACC inhibitor program, which is being evaluated for the potential treatment of NASH, hepatocellular carcinoma and other diseases.
Patents and Proprietary Rights
U.S. and European Patent Expiration
We have a number of U.S. and foreign patents, patent applications and rights to patents related to our compounds, products and technology, but we cannot be certain that issued patents will be enforceable or provide adequate protection or that pending patent applications will result in issued patents.
The following table shows the estimated expiration dates (including Patent Term Extension, Supplementary Protection Certificates and/or Pediatric exclusivity where granted) in the United States and Europe for the primary (typically compound) patents for our Phase 3 product candidates. Patents do not cover the ranolazine compound, the active ingredient of Ranexa. Instead, when it was discovered that only a sustained-release formulation of ranolazine would achieve therapeutic plasma levels, patents were obtained on those formulations and the characteristic plasma levels they achieve. For our product candidates that are single-tablet regimens, the estimated patent expiration date provided corresponds to the latest expiring compound patent for one of the active ingredients in the single-tablet regimen.
Phase 3 Product Candidates
 
Patent Expiration
Product Candidate for the Treatment of HIV
 
U.S.
 
E.U.
 
Single-tablet regimen of bictegravir and F/TAF
 
2033
 
2033
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product Candidates for the Treatment of Liver Diseases
 
 
 
 
 
Single-tablet regimen of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir and voxilaprevir for the treatment of HCV
 
2033
 
2033
 
Selonsertib for the treatment of NASH
 
2033
 
2033
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product Candidates for the Treatment of Hematology/Oncology
 
 
 
 
 
Idelalisib for the treatment of relapsed refractory CLL
 
2025
 
2025
 
GS-5745 for the treatment of gastric cancer
 
2031
 
(2031)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product Candidates for the Treatment of Inflammation Diseases
 
 
 
 
 
Filgotinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
 
2030
 
(2030)
 
Filgotinib for the treatment of Crohn’s disease
 
2030
 
(2030)
 
Filgotinib for the treatment of ulcerative colitis
 
2030
 
(2030)
 
_______________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dates in parentheses reflect the estimated expiration date of patents which may issue from currently pending applications. The estimated expiration dates do not include any potential additional exclusivity (e.g., patent term extension, supplementary protection certificates or pediatric exclusivity) that has not yet been granted.
 

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The following table shows the actual or estimated expiration dates (including Patent Term Extension, Supplementary Protection Certificates and/or Pediatric exclusivity where granted) in the United States and Europe for the primary (typically compound) patents for our marketed products. For our products that are fixed-dose combinations or single-tablet regimens (e.g., Truvada, Atripla, Complera/Eviplera, Stribild, Genvoya, Odefsey and Descovy), the estimated patent expiration dates provided correspond to the latest expiring compound patent for one of the active ingredients in the single-tablet regimen.
Products 
 
Patent Expiration
 
 
U.S.

 
E.U.

 
Hepsera
 
2014

 
2016

 
AmBisome
 
2016

 
2008

 
Macugen
 
2017

 
2017

 
Tamiflu
 
2017

 
2016

 
Letairis
 
2018

*
2020

 
Viread
 
2018

**
2017

 
Ranexa
 
2019

***
2023

 
Atripla
 
2021

 
2017

 
Cayston
 
2021

 
2021

 
Emtriva
 
2021

 
2016

 
Truvada
 
2021

 
2017

 
Lexiscan
 
2022

 
2025

 
Complera/Eviplera
 
2022

 
2022

 
Vitekta
 
2023

 
2028

 
Zydelig
 
2025

 
(2025
)
 
Sovaldi
 
2029

 
2028

 
Stribild
 
2029

 
2028

 
Genvoya
 
2029

 
2028

 
Tybost
 
2029

 
2027

 
Harvoni
 
2030

 
2030

 
Descovy
 
2022

 
2021

 
Odefsey
 
2025

 
2022

 
Epclusa
 
2032

 
2032

 
Vemlidy
 
2022

 
2021

 
_______________________
 
 
 
 
 
Dates in parentheses reflect the estimated expiration date of patents which may issue from currently pending applications. The estimated expiration dates do not include any potential additional exclusivity (e.g., patent term extension, supplementary protection certificates or pediatric exclusivity) that has not yet been granted.
 
______________________________________________________
*
In 2017, Gilead and Watson Laboratories, Inc. (Watson) reached an agreement to settlement the patent litigation related to Letairis.
**
In 2013, Gilead and Teva Pharmaceuticals (Teva) reached an agreement in principle to settle the ongoing patent litigation concerning the four patents that protect tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in our Viread, Truvada and Atripla products. Under the agreement, Teva will be allowed to launch a generic version of Viread on December 15, 2017.
***
In 2013, Gilead and Lupin Limited (Lupin) reached an agreement to settle the patent litigation prior to issuance of the court’s decision. Under the agreement, Lupin will be allowed to launch a generic version of Ranexa on February 27, 2019.
Patent Protection and Certain Challenges
Patents and other proprietary rights are very important to our business. If we have a properly drafted and enforceable patent, it can be more difficult for our competitors to use our technology to create competitive products and more difficult for our competitors to obtain a patent that prevents us from using technology we create. As part of our business strategy, we actively seek patent protection both in the United States and internationally and file additional patent applications, when appropriate, to cover improvements in our compounds, products and technology.
Patents covering certain of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) of Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Genvoya, Odefsey, Descovy, Vitekta, Emtriva, Letairis, and Hepsera are held by third parties. We acquired exclusive rights to these patents in the agreements we have with these parties. Patents do not cover the ranolazine compound, the active ingredient

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of Ranexa. Instead, when it was discovered that only a sustained-release formulation of ranolazine would achieve therapeutic plasma levels, patents were obtained on those formulations and the characteristic plasma levels they achieve. Patents do not cover the active ingredients in AmBisome.
We may obtain patents for certain products many years before marketing approval is obtained for those products. Because patents have a limited life, which may begin to run prior to the commercial sale of the related product, the commercial value of the patent may be limited. However, we may be able to apply for patent term extensions or supplementary protection certificates in some countries. For example, extensions for the patents or supplementary protection certificates on many of our products have been granted in the United States and in a number of European countries, compensating in part for delays in obtaining marketing approval. Similar patent term extensions may be available for other products that we are developing, but we cannot be certain we will obtain them in some countries.
It is also important that we do not infringe the valid patents of third parties. If we infringe the valid patents of third parties, we may be prevented from commercializing products or may be required to obtain licenses from these third parties. We may not be able to obtain alternative technologies or any required license on reasonable terms or at all. If we fail to obtain these licenses or alternative technologies, we may be unable to develop or commercialize some or all of our products. For example, we are aware of a body of patents that may relate to our operation of Letairis Education and Access Program (LEAP), our restricted distribution program designed to support Letairis and we are aware of patents and patent applications owned by other parties that may claim to cover the use of sofosbuvir and the use of the combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir.
Because patent applications are confidential for a period of time until a patent is issued, we may not know if our competitors have filed patent applications for technology covered by our pending applications or if we were the first to invent or first to file an application directed toward the technology that is the subject of our patent applications. Competitors may have filed patent applications or received patents and may obtain additional patents and proprietary rights that block or compete with our products. In addition, if competitors file patent applications covering our technology, we may have to participate in interference/derivation proceedings or litigation to determine the right to a patent. Litigation and interference/derivation proceedings are unpredictable and expensive, such that, even if we are ultimately successful, our results of operations may be adversely affected by such events.
Patents relating to pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical and biotechnology products, compounds and processes such as those that cover our existing compounds, products and processes and those that we will likely file in the future, do not always provide complete or adequate protection. Future litigation or other proceedings regarding the enforcement or validity of our existing patents or any future patents could result in the invalidation of our patents or substantially reduce their protection. From time to time, certain individuals or entities may challenge our patents.
Our pending patent applications and the patent applications filed by our collaborative partners may not result in the issuance of any patents or may result in patents that do not provide adequate protection. As a result, we may not be able to prevent third parties from developing compounds or products that are closely related to those which we have developed or are developing. In addition, certain countries in South America, Africa and Asia, including Brazil and China, do not provide effective enforcement of our patents, and third-party manufacturers may be able to sell generic versions of our products in those countries.
Litigation Related to Sofosbuvir
In January 2012, we acquired Pharmasset, Inc. (Pharmasset). Through the acquisition, we acquired sofosbuvir, a nucleotide analog that acts to inhibit the replication of the HCV. In December 2013, we received U.S. FDA approval of sofosbuvir, now known commercially as Sovaldi. In October 2014, we also received approval of the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, now known commercially as Harvoni. In June 2016, we received approval of the fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir, now known commercially as Epclusa. We have received a number of contractual and intellectual property claims regarding sofosbuvir. While we have carefully considered these claims both prior to and following the acquisition and believe they are without merit, we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of such claims or range of loss.
We own patents and patent applications that claim sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) as a chemical entity and its metabolites and the fixed-dose combinations of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (Harvoni) and sofosbuvir and velpatasvir (Epclusa). Third parties may have, or may obtain rights to, patents that allegedly could be used to prevent or attempt to prevent us from commercializing Epclusa, Harvoni or Sovaldi. For example, we are aware of patents and patent applications owned by other parties that have been or may in the future be alleged by such parties to cover the use of Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi. We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of intellectual property claims related to Epclusa, Harvoni or Sovaldi. We have spent, and will continue to spend, significant resources defending against these claims.
If third parties successfully obtain valid and enforceable patents, and successfully prove infringement of those patents by Epclusa, Harvoni and/or Sovaldi, we could be prevented from selling these products unless we were able to obtain a license under such patents. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

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Interference Proceedings and Litigation with Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Idenix), Universita Degli Studi di Cagliari (UDSG), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and L’Universite Montpellier II
In February 2012, we received notice that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) had declared Interference No. 105,871 (First Idenix Interference) between our U.S. Patent No. 7,429,572 (the ’572 patent) and Idenix’s pending U.S. Patent Application No. 12/131,868 to determine who was the first to invent certain nucleoside compounds. In January 2014, the USPTO Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) determined that Pharmasset and not Idenix was the first to invent the compounds. Idenix has appealed the PTAB’s decisions to the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, which has stayed that appeal pending the outcome of the appeal of the interference involving Idenix’s U.S. Patent No. 7,608,600 (the ’600 patent) as described below.
In December 2013, after receiving our request to do so, the USPTO declared Interference No. 105,981 (Second Idenix Interference) between our pending U.S. Patent Application No. 11/854,218 and Idenix’s ’600 patent. The ’600 patent includes claims directed to methods of treating HCV with nucleoside compounds. In March 2015, the PTAB determined that Pharmasset and not Idenix was the first to invent the claimed methods of treating HCV. Idenix appealed this decision in both the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware and the U.S. Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit (CAFC). The CAFC heard oral arguments in September 2016, and we are awaiting its decision. We filed a motion to dismiss the appeal in Delaware, and the court has stayed the appeal relating to the Second Idenix Interference.
We believe that the Idenix claims involved in the First and Second Idenix Interferences, and similar U.S. and foreign patents claiming the same compounds, metabolites and uses thereof, are invalid. As a result, we filed an Impeachment Action in the Federal Court of Canada to invalidate Idenix Canadian Patent No. 2,490,191 (the ’191 patent), which is the Canadian patent that corresponds to the ’600 patent. Idenix asserted that the commercialization of Sovaldi in Canada will infringe its ’191 patent and that our Canadian Patent No. 2,527,657, corresponding to our ’572 patent, is invalid. In November 2015, the Canadian court held that Idenix’s patent is invalid and that our patent is valid. Idenix appealed the decision to the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal in November 2015. The appeal hearing was held in January 2017 and we are awaiting the decision.
We filed a similar legal action in Norway in the Oslo District Court seeking to invalidate Idenix’s Norwegian patent corresponding to the ’600 patent. In September 2013, Idenix filed an invalidation action in the Norwegian proceedings against our Norwegian Patent No. 333700, which corresponds to the ’572 patent. In March 2014, the Norwegian court found all claims in the Idenix Norwegian patent to be invalid and upheld the validity of all claims in our patent. Idenix appealed the decision to the Norwegian Court of Appeal. In April 2016, the Court of Appeal issued its decision invalidating the Idenix patent and upholding our patent. Idenix has not filed a further appeal.
In January 2013, we filed a legal action in the Federal Court of Australia seeking to invalidate Idenix’s Australian patent corresponding to the ’600 patent. In April 2013, Idenix asserted that the commercialization of Sovaldi in Australia infringes its Australian patent corresponding to the ’600 patent. In March 2016, the Australian court revoked Idenix’s Australian patent. Idenix has appealed this decision. The appeal hearing was held in November 2016 and we are awaiting the decision.
In March 2014, the European Patent Office (EPO) granted Idenix European Patent No. 1 523 489 (the ’489 patent), which corresponds to the ’600 patent. The same day that the ’489 patent was granted, we filed an opposition with the EPO seeking to revoke the ’489 patent. An opposition hearing was held in February 2016, and the EPO ruled in our favor and revoked the ’489 patent. Idenix has appealed. In March 2014, Idenix also initiated infringement proceedings against us in the United Kingdom (UK), Germany and France alleging that the commercialization of Sovaldi would infringe the UK, German and French counterparts of the ’489 patent. A trial was held in the UK in October 2014. In December 2014, the High Court of Justice of England and Wales (UK Court) invalidated all challenged claims of the ’489 patent on multiple grounds. Idenix appealed. In November 2016, the appeals court affirmed the UK Court’s decision invalidating Idenix’s patent. In March 2015, the German court in Düsseldorf determined that the Idenix patent was highly likely to be invalid and stayed the infringement proceedings pending the outcome of the opposition hearing held by the EPO in February 2016. Idenix has not appealed this decision of the German court staying the proceedings. Upon Idenix’s request, the French proceedings have been stayed. Idenix has not been awarded patents corresponding to the ’600 patent in Japan or China.
In December 2013, Idenix, Universita Degli Studi di Cagliari (UDSG), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and L’Université Montpellier II sued us in U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that the commercialization of sofosbuvir will infringe the ’600 patent and that an interference exists between the ’600 patent and our U.S. Patent No. 8,415,322. Also in December 2013, Idenix and UDSG sued us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts alleging that the commercialization of sofosbuvir will infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 6,914,054 (the ‘054 patent) and 7,608,597 (the ‘597 patent). In June 2014, the court transferred the Massachusetts litigation to the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware. Idenix was acquired by Merck & Co. Inc. (Merck) in August 2014.
Prior to trial in December 2016, Idenix committed to give us a covenant not to sue with respect to any claims arising out of the ‘054 patent related to sofosbuvir and withdrew that patent from the trial. In addition, Idenix declined to litigate the ‘600 patent infringement action at trial in light of the appeal currently pending at the CAFC. In January 2017, the District Court stayed Idenix’s infringement claim on the ‘600 patent pending the outcome of the appeal of the interference decision on that patent, described

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above. A jury trial was held in December 2016 on the remaining ‘597 patent. In December 2016, the jury found that we willfully infringed the asserted claims of the ‘597 patent and awarded Idenix $2.54 billion in past damages. The parties will file post-trial motions and briefings during the first quarter of 2017, and we expect the judge to rule in the third or fourth quarter of 2017. Once the judge has issued these rulings, the case will move to the CAFC.
Although we cannot predict with certainty the ultimate outcome of this litigation, we believe the jury verdict to be in error, and that errors were also made by the court with respect to certain rulings made before and during trial. We are confident in the merits of our case and will vigorously pursue this position in post-trial motions and on appeal. We expect that our arguments in the forthcoming post-trial motions and on appeal will focus on one or more of the arguments we made to the judge and jury, those being (i) when properly construed, Gilead does not infringe the claims of the ‘597 patent, (ii) the patent is invalid for failure to properly describe the claimed invention and (iii) the patent is invalid because it does not enable one of skill in the art to practice the claimed invention.
For further information, please see Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
If the jury’s verdict is upheld on appeal, the amount we could be required to pay could be material. The timing and magnitude of the amount of any such payment could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Litigation with Merck
In August 2013, Merck contacted us requesting that we pay royalties on the sales of sofosbuvir and obtain a license to U.S. Patent No. 7,105,499 (the ’499 patent) and U.S. Patent No. 8,481,712 (the ’712 patent), which it co-owns with Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The ’499 and ’712 patents cover compounds which do not include, but may relate to, sofosbuvir. We filed a lawsuit in August 2013 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California seeking a declaratory judgment that the Merck patents are invalid and not infringed. During patent prosecution, Merck amended its patent application in an attempt to cover compounds related to sofosbuvir. Initially, in March 2016, a jury determined that we had not established that Merck’s patents are invalid for lack of written description or lack of enablement and awarded Merck $200 million in damages. However, in June 2016, the court ruled in Gilead’s favor on our defense of unclean hands and determined that Merck may not recover any damages from us for the ’499 and ’712 patents. The judge has determined that Merck is required to pay our attorney’s fees due to the exceptional nature of this case. The amount of fees owed to us by Merck is yet to be determined by the court.
Merck has filed a notice of appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit regarding the court’s decision on our defense of unclean hands. We appealed the issue relating to the invalidity of Merck’s patent. If the decision on our defense of unclean hands is reversed on appeal and Merck’s patent is upheld, we may be required to pay damages and a royalty on sales of sofosbuvir-containing products following the appeal. In that event, the judge has indicated that she will determine the amount of the royalty, if necessary, at the conclusion of any appeal in this case.
Litigation with the University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota (the University) has obtained Patent No. 8,815,830 (the ’830 patent), which purports to broadly cover nucleosides with antiviral and anticancer activity.  In August 2016, the University filed a lawsuit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Minnesota, alleging that the commercialization of sofosbuvir-containing products infringes the ’830 patent.  We believe that the ’830 patent is invalid and will not be infringed by the continued commercialization of sofosbuvir.
European Patent Claims
In February 2015, several parties filed oppositions in the EPO requesting revocation of our granted European patent covering sofosbuvir that expires in 2028. In October 2016, the EPO upheld the validity of certain claims of our sofosbuvir patent. We anticipate that the challengers will appeal this decision in favor of our patent. The appeal process may take several years.
In January 2016, several parties filed oppositions in the EPO requesting revocation of our granted European patent covering TAF that expires in 2021.
In March 2016, three parties filed oppositions in the EPO requesting revocation of our granted European patent covering cobicistat that expires in 2027. While we are confident in the strength of our patents, we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these oppositions.

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If we are unsuccessful in defending these oppositions, some or all of our patent claims may be narrowed or revoked and the patent protection for sofosbuvir, TAF and cobicistat in Europe could be substantially shortened or eliminated entirely. If our patents are revoked, and no other European patents are granted covering these compounds, our exclusivity may be based entirely on regulatory exclusivity granted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Sovaldi has been granted regulatory exclusivity that will prevent generic sofosbuvir from entering the European Union for 10 years following approval of Sovaldi, or January 2024. If we lose exclusivity for Sovaldi prior to 2028, our expected revenues and results of operations could be negatively impacted for the years including and succeeding the year in which such exclusivity is lost, which may cause our stock price to decline.
Litigation with Generic Manufacturers
As part of the approval process for some of our products, FDA granted us a New Chemical Entity (NCE) exclusivity period during which other manufacturers’ applications for approval of generic versions of our product will not be approved. Generic manufacturers may challenge the patents protecting products that have been granted NCE exclusivity one year prior to the end of the NCE exclusivity period. Generic manufacturers have sought and may continue to seek FDA approval for a similar or identical drug through an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), the application form typically used by manufacturers seeking approval of a generic drug. The sale of generic versions of our products earlier than their patent expiration would have a significant negative effect on our revenues and results of operations. To seek approval for a generic version of a product having NCE status, a generic company may submit its ANDA to FDA four years after the branded product’s approval. For sofosbuvir, this date falls in December 2017. Consequently, it is possible that one or more generics may file an ANDA for Sovaldi in December 2017.
Current legal proceedings of significance with generic manufacturers include:
HIV Products
In November 2011, December 2011 and August 2012, we received notices that Teva submitted an abbreviated new drug submission (ANDS) to the Canadian Minister of Health requesting permission to manufacture and market generic versions of Truvada, Atripla and Viread. In the notices, Teva alleges that the patents associated with Truvada, Atripla and Viread are invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by Teva’s manufacture, use or sale of generic versions of those products. We filed lawsuits against Teva in the Federal Court of Canada seeking an order of prohibition against approval of these applications.
In December 2013, the court issued an order prohibiting the Canadian Minister of Health from approving Teva’s generic versions of our Viread, Truvada and Atripla products until expiry of our patents in July 2017. Teva has appealed that decision. The court’s decision did not rule on the validity of the patents and accordingly the only issue on appeal is whether the Canadian Minister of Health should be prohibited from approving Teva’s products. In November 2016, we and Teva entered into a settlement agreement to resolve the ongoing contested proceedings concerning Teva’s ANDS for generic versions of Truvada, Atripla, and Viread as well as Gilead’s patents associated with Truvada, Atripla, and Viread.
In June 2014, we received notice that Apotex Inc. (Apotex) submitted an ANDS to the Canadian Minister of Health requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Truvada and a separate ANDS requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Viread. In the notice, Apotex alleges that three of the patents associated with Truvada and two of the patents associated with Viread are invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by Apotex’s manufacture, use or sale of a generic version of Truvada or Viread. In August 2014, we filed lawsuits against Apotex in the Federal Court of Canada seeking orders of prohibition against approval of these ANDS. A hearing in those cases was held in April 2016. In July 2016, the court issued an order prohibiting the Canadian Minister of Health from approving Apotex’s generic version of our Viread product until the expiry of our patents in July 2017. The court declined to prohibit approval of Apotex’s generic version of our Truvada product. The court’s decision did not rule on the validity of the patents. The launch of Apotex’s generic version of our Truvada product would be at risk of infringement of our patents, including patents that we were unable to assert in the present lawsuit, and liability for our damages. Apotex has appealed the court’s decision.
In February 2016, we received notice that Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Mylan) submitted an ANDA to FDA requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Tybost (cobicistat). In the notice, Mylan alleges that the patent covering cobicistat is invalid as obvious and that Mylan’s generic product cannot infringe an invalid claim. In March 2016, we filed lawsuits against Mylan in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware and U.S. District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia. In January 2017, we received a letter from Mylan notifying us that it had submitted a duplicate ANDA to FDA for this same product. We are currently evaluating Mylan’s letter. The trial in Delaware is scheduled for January 2018. The patent in suit that covers Tybost is also listed in the Orange Book for Stribild and Genvoya.
Letairis
In February 2015, we received notice that Watson Laboratories, Inc. (Watson) submitted an ANDA to FDA requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Letairis. In the notice, Watson alleges that one of the patents associated with ambrisentan tablets is invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by Watson’s manufacture, use or sale of a generic

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version of Letairis. In April 2015, we filed a lawsuit against Watson in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey for infringement of our patents. In January 2017, we reached an agreement with Watson to settle the litigation.
In June 2015, we received notice that SigmaPharm Laboratories, LLC (SigmaPharm) submitted an ANDA to FDA requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Letairis. In the notice, SigmaPharm alleges that one of the patents associated with ambrisentan tablets is invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by SigmaPharm’s manufacture, use or sale of a generic version of Letairis. In June 2015, we filed a lawsuit against SigmaPharm in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey for infringement of our patents. The date for trial against SigmaPharm is not yet set but estimated to occur in the second quarter of 2017.
We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these actions, and we may spend significant resources enforcing and defending these patents. If we are unsuccessful in these lawsuits, some or all of our claims in the patents may be narrowed or invalidated and the patent protection for our products could be substantially shortened. Further, if all of the patents covering one or more products are invalidated, FDA or the Canadian Minister of Health could approve the requests to manufacture a generic version of such products in the United States or Canada, respectively, prior to the expiration date of those patents. The sale of generic versions of these products earlier than their patent expiration could have a significant negative effect on our revenues and results of operations.
TAF Litigation
In January 2016, AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Inc. (AHF) filed a complaint with the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California against Gilead, Japan Tobacco, Inc. and Japan Tobacco International, U.S.A. (together, JT), and Emory University (Emory). In April 2016, AHF amended its complaint to add Janssen and Johnson & Johnson Inc. (J&J) as defendants. AHF claims that U.S. Patent Nos. 7,390,791; 7,800,788; 8,754,065; 8,148,374; and 8,633,219 are invalid. In addition, AHF claims that Gilead, independently and together with JT, Akros, Janssen and J&J, is violating federal and state antitrust and unfair competition laws in the market for sales of TAF by offering TAF as part of a fixed-dose combination product with elvitegravir, cobicistat and emtricitabine (Genvoya), a fixed-dose combination product with elvitegravir and rilpivirine (Odefsey) and in a fixed-dosed combination product with elvitegravir (Descovy). AHF sought a declaratory judgment of invalidity against each of the patents as well as monetary damages. In May 2016, we, JT, Janssen, and J&J‎ filed motions to dismiss all of AHF’s claims, which AHF opposed. In June 2016, a hearing was held on the motions to dismiss. In July 2016, the judge granted our and the other defendants’ motions and dismissed all of AHF’s claims. AHF has appealed the court’s decision dismissing the challenge to the validity of our TAF patents.
Department of Justice Investigations
In June 2011, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of California requesting documents related to the manufacture, and related quality and distribution practices, of Complera, Atripla, Truvada, Viread, Emtriva, Hepsera and Letairis. We cooperated with the government’s inquiry. In April 2014, the United States Department of Justice informed us that, following an investigation, it declined to intervene in a False Claims Act lawsuit filed by two former employees. In April 2014, the former employees served a First Amended Complaint. In January 2015, the federal district court issued an order granting in its entirety, without prejudice, our motion to dismiss the First Amended Complaint. In February 2015, the plaintiffs filed a Second Amended Complaint and in June 2015, the federal district court issued an order granting our motion to dismiss the Second Amended Complaint. In July 2015, the plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal in the U.S. Court of Appeals for Ninth Circuit.
In February 2016, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts requesting documents related to our support of 501(c)(3) organizations that provide financial assistance to patients, and for our HCV products, documents concerning our provision of financial assistance to patients. Other companies have disclosed similar inquiries. We are cooperating with this inquiry.
Other Matters
We are a party to various legal actions that arose in the ordinary course of our business. We do not believe that these other legal actions will have a material adverse impact on our consolidated business, financial position or results of operations.
Trade Secrets
We also rely on unpatented trade secrets and improvements, unpatented internal know-how and technological innovation. For example, a great deal of our liposomal manufacturing expertise, which is a key component of our liposomal technology, is not covered by patents but is instead protected as a trade secret. We protect these rights mainly through confidentiality agreements with our corporate partners, employees, consultants and vendors. These agreements provide that all confidential information developed or made known to an individual during the course of their relationship with us will be kept confidential and will not be used or disclosed to third parties except in specified circumstances. In the case of employees, the agreements provide that all inventions made by an individual while employed by us will be our exclusive property. We cannot be certain that these parties will

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comply with these confidentiality agreements, that we have adequate remedies for any breach or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or be independently discovered by our competitors. Under some of our R&D agreements, inventions become jointly owned by us and our corporate partner and in other cases become the exclusive property of one party. In certain circumstances, it can be difficult to determine who owns a particular invention and disputes could arise regarding those inventions. If our trade secrets or confidential information become known or independent discovered by competitors or if we enter into disputes over ownership of inventions, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Manufacturing and Raw Materials
Our manufacturing strategy is to contract with third parties to manufacture the majority of our API and solid dose products. We also rely on our corporate partners to manufacture certain of our products. Additionally, we own or lease manufacturing facilities in Foster City, San Dimas and Oceanside, California; Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and Cork, Ireland, where we manufacture certain products and API for clinical and/or commercial uses.
Manufacturing of our Products
We contract with third parties to manufacture certain API for clinical and commercial purposes, including Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Viread, Genvoya, Odefsey, Descovy, Vemlidy, Emtriva, Tybost, Vitekta, Ranexa, AmBisome, Zydelig and Cayston. We generally use multiple third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture the API in our products. We are the exclusive manufacturer of ambrisentan, the API of Letairis, although another supplier is qualified to make the API of Letairis.
We also rely on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our oral liquid, tablet and capsule products. For example, we use multiple third-party contract manufacturers to tablet Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Viread, Genvoya, Odefsey, Descovy, Vemlidy, Tybost, Vitekta, Letairis, Ranexa, Zydelig and Hepsera. Emtriva encapsulation is also completed by a third-party contract manufacturer as is the liquid filling of Emtriva Oral Solution. In addition, we rely on third-party contract manufacturers to manufacture our aseptic products such as AmBisome and Cayston.
We also have manufacturing agreements with many of our corporate partners. Roche, by itself and through third parties, is responsible for manufacturing Tamiflu. Under our agreement with Roche, through a joint manufacturing committee composed of representatives from Roche and Gilead, we have the opportunity to review Roche’s existing manufacturing capacity for Tamiflu and global plans for manufacturing Tamiflu. Astellas US LLC, our corporate partner for Lexiscan in the United States, is responsible for the commercial manufacture and supply of product in the United States and is dependent on a single supplier for the API of Lexiscan.
For our future products, we continue to develop additional manufacturing capabilities and establish additional third-party suppliers to manufacture sufficient quantities of our product candidates to undertake clinical trials and to manufacture sufficient quantities of any product that is approved for commercial sale.
Our Manufacturing Facilities
At our Foster City, California facility, we conduct process chemistry research and development activities, manufacture API for our clinical trials and oversee our third-party contract manufacturers.
At our San Dimas, California facility, we package and label solid oral dosage form products, including Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Viread, Genvoya, Odefsey, Descovy, Vemlidy, Emtriva, Ranexa and Zydelig, and label Hepsera and Letairis. We also manufacture and label AmBisome and Cayston at our San Dimas facility. We depend on a single supplier for the high quality cholesterol and the API used in the manufacture of AmBisome. Because we are the exclusive supplier of key drug product intermediates of AmBisome, in the event of a disaster, including an earthquake, equipment failure or other difficulty, we may be unable to replace this manufacturing capacity in a timely manner and may be unable to manufacture AmBisome to meet market needs.
We utilize our Cork, Ireland facility primarily for solid dose tablet manufacturing of certain of our antiviral products, as well as product packaging activities. We package and label drug product for Epclusa, Harvoni, Sovaldi, Truvada, Atripla, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Viread, Genvoya, Odefsey, Descovy, Vemlidy, Tybost and Vitekta and label Hepsera and Emtriva at our facilities in Cork, Ireland. We also perform quality control testing, final labeling and secondary packaging of both AmBisome and Cayston and final release of many of our products for the European Union and elsewhere at this facility. We distribute our products to the European Union and other international markets from our Dublin, Ireland site.
At our Edmonton, Alberta facility in Canada, we carry out process research and scale-up of our clinical development candidates, manufacture API for both investigational and commercial products and conduct chemical development activities to improve existing commercial manufacturing processes. We also manufacture the API of Letairis and Hepsera at our Edmonton site.

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Our Oceanside, California facility is designed and equipped to produce biologic compounds for toxicological, Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies. We use the facility for the process development and manufacture of GS-5745 bulk drug substance, an investigational MMP9 mAb inhibitor, and other biologics.
Third-party Manufacturers
Our third-party manufacturers and corporate partners are independent entities who are subject to their own unique operational and financial risks which are out of our control. If we or any of these third-party manufacturers or corporate partners fail to perform as required, this could impair our ability to deliver our products on a timely basis or receive royalties or cause delays in our clinical trials and applications for regulatory approval. Further, we may have to write-off the costs of manufacturing any batch that fails to pass quality inspection or meet regulatory approval. To the extent these risks materialize and affect their performance obligations to us, our financial results may be adversely affected. In addition, we, our third-party manufacturers and our corporate partners may only be able to produce some of our products at one or a limited number of facilities and, therefore, have limited manufacturing capacity for certain products.
We believe the technology we use to manufacture our products is proprietary. For products manufactured by our third-party contract manufacturers, we have disclosed all necessary aspects of this technology to enable them to manufacture the products for us. We have agreements with these third-party manufacturers that are intended to restrict these manufacturers from using or revealing this technology, but we cannot be certain that these third-party manufacturers will comply with these restrictions. In addition, these third-party manufacturers could develop their own technology related to the work they perform for us that we may need to manufacture our products. We could be required to enter into additional agreements with these third-party manufacturers if we want to use that technology ourselves or allow another manufacturer to use that technology. The third-party manufacturer could refuse to allow us to use their technology or could demand terms to use their technology that are not acceptable to us.
Regulation of Manufacturing Process
The manufacturing process for pharmaceutical products is highly regulated and regulators may shut down manufacturing facilities that they believe do not comply with regulations. We, our third-party manufacturers and our corporate partners are subject to current Good Manufacturing Practices, which are extensive regulations governing manufacturing processes, stability testing, record keeping and quality standards as defined by FDA and EMA. Similar regulations are in effect in other countries.
Our manufacturing operations are subject to routine inspections by regulatory agencies. For example, in 2014, we received a letter from FDA related to the extent of method revalidations being conducted, stability program oversight, audit trail review/data management and Quality Management System gaps. We completed and filed our responses to these observations with FDA. If we are unable to remedy the deficiencies cited by FDA or to the extent there are additional deficiencies cited by FDA in future inspections, our currently marketed products and the timing of regulatory approval of products in development could be adversely affected. Further, there is risk that regulatory agencies in other countries where marketing applications are pending will undertake similar additional reviews or apply a heightened standard of review, which could delay the regulatory approvals for products in those countries. If approval of any of our product candidates were delayed or if production of our marketed products was interrupted, our anticipated revenues and our stock price would be adversely affected.
Access to Supplies and Materials
We need access to certain supplies and products to conduct our clinical trials and manufacture our products. If we are unable to purchase sufficient quantities of these materials or find suitable alternate materials in a timely manner, our development efforts for our product candidates may be delayed or our ability to manufacture our products would be limited, which would limit our ability to generate revenues. For example, a significant portion of the raw materials and intermediates used to manufacture our antiviral products are supplied by third-party manufacturers and corporate partners outside of the United States. As a result, any political or economic factors in a specific country or region, including any changes in or interpretations of trade regulations, compliance requirements or tax legislation, that would limit or prevent third parties outside of the United States from supplying these materials would adversely affect our ability to manufacture and supply our antiviral products to meet market needs and have a material and adverse effect on our operating results.
Seasonal Operations and Backlog
Our worldwide product sales do not reflect any significant degree of seasonality.
For the most part, we operate in markets characterized by short lead times and the absence of significant backlogs. We do not believe that backlog information is material to our business as a whole.

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Government Regulation
Our operations and activities are subject to extensive regulation by numerous government authorities in the United States and other countries. In the United States, the European Union and other countries, drugs are subject to rigorous regulation. Federal and state statutes and regulations govern the testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, labeling, storage, record keeping, approval, advertising and promotion of our products. As a result of these regulations, product development and product approval processes are very expensive and time consuming. The regulatory requirements applicable to drug development and approval are subject to change. For example, in December 2016, former U.S. President Obama signed into law the 21st Century Cures Act, which contains a broad range of measures aimed at spurring drug discovery, development and delivery. These and other legal and regulatory changes may impact our operations in the future.
A country’s regulatory agency, such as FDA in the United States and EMA for the European Union, must approve a drug before it can be sold in the respective country or countries. The general process for drug approval in the United States is summarized below. Many other countries, including countries in the European Union and Japan, have very similar regulatory structures.
Preclinical Testing
Before we can test a drug candidate in humans, we must study the drug in laboratory experiments and in animals to generate data to support the drug candidate’s potential benefits and safety. We submit this data to FDA in an investigational new drug (IND) application seeking its approval to test the compound in humans.
Clinical Trials
If FDA accepts the IND, the drug candidate can then be studied in human clinical trials to determine if the drug candidate is safe and effective. These clinical trials involve three separate phases that often overlap, can take many years and are very expensive. These three phases, which are subject to considerable regulation, are as follows:
Phase 1. The drug candidate is given to a small number of healthy human control subjects or patients suffering from the indicated disease, to test for safety, dose tolerance, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, distribution and excretion.
Phase 2. The drug candidate is given to a limited patient population to determine the effect of the drug candidate in treating the disease, the best dose of the drug candidate, and the possible side effects and safety risks of the drug candidate. It is not uncommon for a drug candidate that appears promising in Phase 1 clinical trials to fail in the more rigorous Phase 2 clinical trials.
Phase 3. If a drug candidate appears to be effective and safe in Phase 2 clinical trials, Phase 3 clinical trials are commenced to confirm those results. Phase 3 clinical trials are conducted over a longer term, involve a significantly larger population, are conducted at numerous sites in different geographic regions and are carefully designed to provide reliable and conclusive data regarding the safety and benefits of a drug candidate. It is not uncommon for a drug candidate that appears promising in Phase 2 clinical trials to fail in the more rigorous and extensive Phase 3 clinical trials.
FDA Approval Process
When we believe that the data from our clinical trials show an acceptable benefit-risk profile, we submit the appropriate filing, usually in the form of an NDA or supplemental NDA, with FDA seeking approval to sell the drug candidate for a particular use. FDA may hold a public hearing where an independent advisory committee of expert advisors asks additional questions and makes recommendations regarding the drug candidate. This committee makes a recommendation to FDA that is not binding but is generally followed by FDA. If FDA agrees that the compound has met the required level of safety and efficacy for a particular use, it will allow us to sell the drug candidate in the United States for that use. It is not unusual, however, for FDA to reject an application because it believes that the drug candidate is not safe enough or efficacious enough or because it does not believe that the data submitted is reliable or conclusive.
At any point in this process, the development of a drug candidate can be stopped for a number of reasons including safety concerns and lack of treatment benefit. We cannot be certain that any clinical trials that we are currently conducting or any that we conduct in the future will be completed successfully or within any specified time period. We may choose, or FDA may require us, to delay or suspend our clinical trials at any time if it appears that the patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk or if the drug candidate does not appear to have sufficient treatment benefit.
FDA may also require Phase 4 non-registrational studies to explore scientific questions to further characterize safety and efficacy during commercial use of our drug. FDA may also require us to provide additional data or information, improve our manufacturing processes, procedures or facilities or may require extensive surveillance to monitor the safety or benefits of our product candidates if it determines that our filing does not contain adequate evidence of the safety and benefits of the drug. In addition, even if FDA approves a drug, it could limit the uses of the drug. FDA can withdraw approvals if it does not believe that we are complying with regulatory standards or if problems are uncovered or occur after approval.

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In addition to obtaining FDA approval for each drug, we obtain FDA approval of the manufacturing facilities for any drug we sell, including those of companies who manufacture our drugs for us. All of these facilities are subject to periodic inspections by FDA. FDA must also approve foreign establishments that manufacture products to be sold in the United States and these facilities are subject to periodic regulatory inspection. Our manufacturing facilities located in California, including our Oceanside and San Dimas facilities, also must be licensed by the State of California in compliance with local regulatory requirements. Our manufacturing facilities located in Canada, including our Edmonton, Alberta facility, and our facilities located near Dublin and in Cork, Ireland, also must obtain local licenses and permits in compliance with local regulatory requirements.
Drugs that treat serious or life threatening diseases and conditions that are not adequately addressed by existing drugs, and for which the development program is designed to address the unmet medical need, may be designated as fast track candidates by FDA and may be eligible for priority review. Drugs for the treatment of HIV infection that are designated for use under the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief may also qualify for an expedited or priority review.
Rest of World
Drugs are also subject to extensive regulation outside of the United States. In the European Union, there is a centralized approval procedure that authorizes marketing of a product in all countries of the European Union (which includes most major countries in Europe). If this centralized approval procedure is not used, approval in one country of the European Union can be used to obtain approval in another country of the European Union under one of two simplified application processes: the mutual recognition procedure or the decentralized procedure, both of which rely on the principle of mutual recognition. After receiving regulatory approval through any of the European registration procedures, separate pricing and reimbursement approvals are also required in most countries. The European Union also has requirements for approval of manufacturing facilities for all products that are approved for sale by the European regulatory authorities.
Pricing and Reimbursement
Successful commercialization of our products depends, in part, on the availability of governmental and third-party payer reimbursement for the cost of such products and related treatments in the markets where we sell our products. Government health authorities, private health insurers and other organizations generally provide reimbursement. In the United States, the European Union, Japan and other significant or potentially significant markets for our products and product candidates, government authorities and third-party payers are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services. A significant portion of our sales of the majority of our products are subject to substantial discounts from list price.
In addition, the non-retail sector in the United States, which includes government institutions, including state ADAPs, Veterans Administration (VA), correctional facilities and large health maintenance organizations, tends to be even less consistent in terms of buying patterns and often causes quarter-over-quarter fluctuations that do not necessarily mirror patient demand for our products. Federal and state budget pressures, including sequestration, as well as the annual grant cycles for federal and state funds, may cause purchasing patterns to not reflect patient demand of our products. For example, in the first quarters of certain prior years, we observed large non-retail purchases of our HIV products by a number of state ADAPs that exceeded patient demand. We believe such purchases were driven by the grant cycle for federal ADAP funds. Additionally, during the second half of 2016, we experienced fluctuations in VA new HCV patient starts and purchasing patterns due to VA funding. We expect to continue to experience fluctuations in the purchasing patterns of our non-retail customers which may result in fluctuations in our product sales, revenues and earnings in the future. In light of the global economic downturn and budget crises faced by many European countries, we have observed variations in purchasing patterns induced by cost containment measures in Europe. We believe these measures have caused some government agencies and other purchasers to reduce inventory of our products in the distribution channels, which has decreased our revenues and caused fluctuations in our product sales and earnings. We may continue to see this trend in the future.
In addition, future sales of our HCV products are difficult to estimate because demand depends, in part, on the extent of reimbursement of our HCV products by private and government payers. In light of continued fiscal and debt crises experienced by several countries in the European Union and Japan, governments have announced or implemented measures to manage healthcare expenditures. We may continue to experience global pricing pressure which could result in larger discounts or rebates on our products or delayed reimbursement, which negatively impacts our product sales and results of operations. Also, private and public payers can choose to exclude our HCV products from their formulary coverage lists or limit the types of patients for whom coverage will be provided, which would negatively impact the demand for, and revenues of, our HCV products. Any change in the formulary coverage, reimbursement levels or discounts or rebates offered on our HCV products to payers may impact our anticipated revenues. We expect pricing pressure in the HCV market to continue.
As our products mature, private insurers and government payers often reduce the amount they will reimburse patients, which increases pressure on us to reduce prices. Further, as new branded or generic products are introduced into major markets, our ability to maintain pricing and market share may be affected.

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See also our Item 1A - risk factor “A substantial portion of our revenues is derived from sales of products to treat HCV and HIV. If we are unable to maintain or continue increasing sales of these products, our results of operations may be adversely affected.”
In February 2016, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts requesting documents related to our support of 501(c)(3) organizations that provide financial assistance to patients, and for our HCV products, documents concerning our provision of financial assistance to patients. Other companies have disclosed similar inquiries. We are cooperating with this inquiry. It is possible that any actions taken by the U.S. Department of Justice could result in civil penalties or injunctive relief, negative publicity or other negative actions that could harm our reputation, reduce demand for our products and/or reduce coverage of our products, including by federal health care programs such as Medicare and Medicaid and state health care programs. If any or all of these events occur, our business and stock price could be materially and adversely affected.
United States Healthcare Reform
Legislative and regulatory changes to government prescription drug procurement and reimbursement programs occur relatively frequently in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. In the United States, we, along with other pharmaceutical manufacturers of branded drug products, are required to pay a portion of an industry fee (also known as the branded prescription drug (BPD) fee), calculated based on select government sales during the year as a percentage of total industry government sales. The amount of the annual BPD fee imposed on the pharmaceutical industry as a whole was $3.0 billion in 2016, and will increase to $4.0 billion in 2017, increase to a peak of $4.1 billion in 2018, and then decrease to $2.8 billion in 2019 and thereafter. Our BPD fee expenses were $270 million in 2016, $414 million in 2015 and $590 million in 2014. The BPD fee is not tax deductible. In addition, discussions continue at the federal level on legislation that would either allow or require the federal government to directly negotiate price concessions from pharmaceutical manufacturers or set minimum requirements for Medicare Part D pricing. Further, certain states have proposed legislation that seeks to regulate pharmaceutical drug pricing. If such proposed legislation is passed, we may experience additional pricing pressures on our products.
There has been extensive discussion about a possible repeal or amendment of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) or other government action, which could negatively impact the use and/or reimbursement of our products. In January 2017, Congress voted to adopt a budget resolution for fiscal year 2017, that while not law, is widely viewed as the first step toward the passage of legislation that would repeal certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act. Further, on January 20, 2017, the new administration issued an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the Affordable Care Act to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the Affordable Care Act that would impose a fiscal burden on states or a cost, fee, tax, penalty or regulatory burden on individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. Congress could also consider legislation to replace repealed elements of the Affordable Care Act.
In addition, many states have proposed legislation that seeks to indirectly or directly regulate pharmaceutical drug pricing by requiring biopharmaceutical manufacturers to publicly report proprietary pricing information or to place a maximum price ceiling on pharmaceutical products purchased by state agencies. If such proposed legislation is passed, we may experience additional pricing pressures on our products. Similar bills have been previously introduced at the federal level and we expect that additional legislation may be introduced this year. The potential effect of health insurance market destabilization during ongoing repeal and replace discussions, as well as the impact of potential changes to the way the Medicaid program is financed, will likely affect patients’ sources of insurance and resultant drug coverage. Discussions continue at the federal level regarding policies that would either allow or require the U.S. government to directly negotiate drug prices with pharmaceutical manufacturers for Medicare patients, require manufacturers to pay higher rebates in Medicare Part D, give states more flexibility on drugs that are covered under the Medicaid program, and other policy proposals that could impact reimbursement for our products. Other discussions have centered on legislation that would permit the re-importation of prescription medications from Canada or other countries. It is difficult to predict the impact, if any, of any such legislation on the use and reimbursement of our products in the United States, including the potential for the importation of generic versions of our products.
In addition, state Medicaid programs could request additional supplemental rebates on our products as a result of the increase in the federal base Medicaid rebate. Private insurers could also use the enactment of these increased rebates to exert pricing pressure on our products, and to the extent that private insurers or managed care programs follow Medicaid coverage and payment developments, the adverse effects may be magnified by private insurers adopting lower payment schedules.
Health Care Fraud and Abuse Laws and Anti-Bribery Laws
We are subject to various federal and state laws pertaining to health care “fraud and abuse,” including anti-kickback laws and false claims laws. Anti-kickback laws make it illegal for a prescription drug manufacturer to solicit, offer, receive or pay any remuneration in exchange for, or to induce, the referral of business, including the purchase or prescription of a particular drug. Due to the breadth of the statutory provisions and the increasing attention being given to them by law enforcement authorities, it is possible that certain of our practices may be challenged under anti-kickback or similar laws. False claims laws generally prohibit anyone from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false or fraudulent claim for payment by federal and certain state

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payers (including Medicare and Medicaid), or knowingly making, using or causing to be made or used, a false record or statement material to a false or fraudulent claim. Our sales, marketing, patient support and medical activities may be subject to scrutiny under these laws. In addition, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. We operate in parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree. In certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices or may require us to interact with doctors and hospitals, some of which may be state controlled, in a manner that is different than local custom. Despite our training and compliance program, our internal control policies and procedures may not protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents. Violations of fraud and abuse laws or anti-bribery laws may be punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including fines and civil monetary penalties, as well as the possibility of exclusion from federal health care programs (including Medicare and Medicaid). Violations can also lead to the imposition of a Corporate Integrity Agreement or similar government oversight program. If the government were to allege against or convict us of violating these laws, there could be a disruption on our business and material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Compulsory Licenses
In a number of developing countries, government officials and other interested groups have suggested that pharmaceutical companies should make drugs for HCV or HIV infection available at low cost. Alternatively, governments in those developing countries could require that we grant compulsory licenses to allow competitors to manufacture and sell their own versions of our products, thereby reducing our product sales. For example, there is growing attention on the availability of HCV therapies and some activists are advocating for the increased availability of HCV therapies through other means including compulsory licenses. In the past, certain offices of the government of Brazil have expressed concern over the affordability of our HIV products and declared that they were considering issuing compulsory licenses to permit the manufacture of otherwise patented products for HIV infection, including Viread. In addition, concerns over the cost and availability of Tamiflu related to a potential avian flu pandemic and H1N1 influenza generated international discussions over compulsory licensing of our Tamiflu patents. For example, the Canadian government considered allowing Canadian manufacturers to manufacture and export the active ingredient in Tamiflu to eligible developing and least developed countries under Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime. Furthermore, Roche issued voluntary licenses to permit third-party manufacturing of Tamiflu. For example, Roche granted a sublicense to Shanghai Pharmaceutical (Group) Co., Ltd. for China and a sublicense to India’s Hetero Drugs Limited for India and certain developing countries. If compulsory licenses permit generic manufacturing to override our product patents for our HCV products, HIV products or Tamiflu, or if we are required to grant compulsory licenses for these products, it could reduce our earnings and cash flows and harm our business.
In addition, certain countries do not permit enforcement of our patents, or permit our patents to issue, and third-party manufacturers are able to sell generic versions of our products in those countries. For example, in July 2009, the Brazilian patent authority rejected our patent application for TDF, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in Viread. This was the highest level of appeal available to us within the Brazilian patent authority. Because we do not currently have a patent in Brazil, the Brazilian government now purchases its supply of TDF from generic manufacturers. In the first quarter of 2017, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency rejected our patent applications related to sofosbuvir and our HCV products. We plan to appeal this decision. Sales of generic versions of our products could significantly reduce our sales and adversely affect our results of operations, particularly if generic versions of our products are imported into territories where we have existing commercial sales.
Employees
As of January 31, 2017, we had approximately 9,000 employees. We believe we have good relations with our employees.
Environment, Health and Safety
We strive to reduce our environmental footprint and implement sustainable business process and practices, We incorporate sustainability throughout the development and distribution of our medicines. From the safety and regulatory compliance of our products to the regular efficiency improvements we make to our manufacturing processes, the operations surrounding our product portfolio are routinely evaluated for new and innovative ways to further incorporate social and environmental responsibility. Our practices include ethical sourcing of materials, green chemistry practices, solvent recycling and continued improvements to the sustainability and efficiency of the API and product development process. Gilead sites around the world identify opportunities to reduce natural resource usage through water conservation, sustainable building practices, energy conservation, recycling and diversion from landfill and alternative transportation. We continue to look for ways to minimize our impact on the environment. Some factors that contribute to our environmental impact include greenhouse gas emissions produced by employee commutes, the energy and water consumed by our facilities, and the use of hazardous materials such as chemicals, viruses and radioactive compounds in our R&D facilities. Please refer to our 2015 Corporate Social Responsibility Report found on our website at

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www.gilead.com under “Responsibility” for some of the measures we have taken to mitigate the environmental impact from our business.
We are subject to a number of laws and regulations that require compliance with federal, state, and local regulations regarding workplace safety and protection of the environment. We anticipate additional regulations in the near future. Laws and regulations are implemented and under consideration to mitigate the effects of climate change mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Our business is not energy intensive. Therefore, we do not anticipate being subject to a cap and trade system or other mitigation measure that would materially impact our capital expenditures, operations, or competitive position. Based on current information, and subject to the finalization of proposed regulations, we believe that our primary risk related to climate change is increased energy costs.
Other Information
We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act. Therefore, we file periodic reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Such reports, proxy statements and other information may be obtained by visiting the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549 or by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330, by sending an electronic message to the SEC at publicinfo@sec.gov or by sending a fax to the SEC at 1-202-777-1027. In addition, the SEC maintains a website (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
The mailing address of our headquarters is 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California 94404, and our telephone number at that location is 650-574-3000. Our website is www.gilead.com. Through a link on the “Investors” section of our website (under “SEC Filings” in the “Financial Information” section), we make available the following filings as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC: our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; Current Reports on Form 8-K; and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. All such filings are available free of charge upon request.
Transactions with Iran
We did not have any transactions with Iran during 2016 that would require disclosure in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
In evaluating our business, you should carefully consider the following risks in addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A manifestation of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. We note these factors for investors as permitted by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. It is not possible to predict or identify all such factors and, therefore, you should not consider the following risks to be a complete statement of all the potential risks or uncertainties that we face.
A substantial portion of our revenues is derived from sales of products to treat HCV and HIV. If we are unable to increase HIV sales or if HCV sales decrease more than anticipated, then our results of operations may be adversely affected.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, sales of Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi for the treatment of HCV accounted for approximately 50% of our total product sales. The primary driver of our HCV product revenues is patient starts, followed by market share, average treatment duration and price. Since the second quarter of 2015, the number of new patient starts has diminished, and we expect patient starts to decline relative to 2016 in all major markets, resulting in a decline in HCV revenues. Revenue per patient may also decline as a result of increased competition and pricing pressures, a larger than anticipated shift in our payer mix to more highly discounted payer segments and geographic regions and a decrease in the average duration of treatment as fewer patients are treated for 24 or 12 weeks and more patients are treated for 8 weeks. We also could experience a decline in market share due to increased competition from new HCV products that enter the market.
In addition, future sales of Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi are difficult to estimate because demand depends, in part, on the extent of reimbursement of our HCV products by private and government payers. In light of continued financial crises experienced by several countries in the European Union, some governments have announced or implemented measures to further reduce healthcare expenditures. We may continue to experience global pricing pressure which could result in larger discounts or rebates on our products or delayed reimbursement, which negatively impacts our product sales and results of operations. Also, private and public payers can choose to exclude Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi from their formulary coverage lists or limit the types of patients for whom coverage will be provided, which would negatively impact the demand for, and revenues of, Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi. Any change in the formulary coverage, reimbursement levels or discounts or rebates offered on our HCV products to payers may impact our anticipated revenues. We expect pricing pressure in the HCV market to continue. If we are unable to achieve our forecasted HCV sales, our HCV product revenues and results of operations could be negatively affected, and our stock price could experience significant volatility.

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We receive a substantial portion of our revenue from sales of our products for the treatment of HIV infection, which include Descovy, Odefsey, Genvoya, Truvada, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera and Atripla. During the year ended December 31, 2016, sales of our HIV products accounted for approximately 43% of our total product sales. Most of our HIV products contain tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and/or emtricitabine, which belong to the nucleoside class of antiviral therapeutics. In addition, if the treatment paradigm for HIV changes, causing nucleoside-based therapeutics to fall out of favor, or if we are unable to maintain or increase our HIV product sales, our results of operations would likely suffer and we would likely need to scale back our operations, including our spending on research and development (R&D) efforts.
We may be unable to sustain or increase sales of our HCV or HIV products for any number of reasons including, but not limited to, the reasons discussed above and the following:
As our HCV and HIV products are used over a longer period of time in many patients and in combination with other products, and additional studies are conducted, new issues with respect to safety, resistance and interactions with other drugs may arise, which could cause us to provide additional warnings or contraindications on our labels, narrow our approved indications or halt sales of a product, each of which could reduce our revenues.
As our products mature, private insurers and government payers often reduce the amount they will reimburse patients for these products, which increases pressure on us to reduce prices.
If physicians do not see the benefit of our HCV or HIV products, the sales of our HCV or HIV products will be limited.
As new branded or generic products are introduced into major markets, our ability to maintain pricing and market share may be affected. For example, TDF, one of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada, and the main active pharmaceutical ingredient in Viread, is expected to face generic competition in the United States, the European Union and other countries in 2017. In addition, because emtricitabine, the other active pharmaceutical ingredient of Truvada, faced generic competition in the European Union in 2016, Truvada is also expected to face generic competition in the European Union and other countries outside of the United States in 2017. This may have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.
If we fail to commercialize new products or expand the indications for existing products, our prospects for future revenues may be adversely affected.
If we do not introduce new products or increase sales of our existing products, we will not be able to increase or maintain our total revenues nor continue to expand our R&D efforts. Drug development is inherently risky and many product candidates fail during the drug development process. For example, during 2016 we announced that we terminated our Phase 2 and 2b studies of simtuzumab for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, NASH and primary sclerosing cholangitis, our Phase 2 and 2/3 studies of GS-5745 for the treatment of Crohn’s Disease and ulcerative colitis, our Phase 2 studies of selonsertib for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and diabetic kidney disease, and our studies of eleclazine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we may decide to terminate product development after expending significant resources and effort. For example, after completion of two Phase 3 studies of momelotinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis in 2016, we decided to terminate the development of momelotinib.
In the fourth quarter of 2016 and the first quarter of 2017, we filed our new drug application (NDA) and marketing authorization application (MAA) in the United States and European Union for the approval of an investigational, once-daily, single-tablet regimen of sofosbuvir 400 mg, velpatasvir 100 mg and voxilaprevir 100 mg (SOF/VEL/VOX) for the treatment of direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-experienced HCV-infected patients. These and any future marketing applications we file may not be approved by the regulatory authorities on a timely basis, or at all. Even if marketing approval is granted for these products, there may be significant limitations on their use. Further, we may be unable to file our marketing applications for new products.
Our inability to accurately predict demand for our products, uptake of new products or fluctuations in customer inventories makes it difficult for us to accurately forecast sales and may cause our forecasted revenues and earnings to fluctuate, which could adversely affect our financial results and our stock price.
We may be unable to accurately predict demand for our products, including the uptake of new products, as demand is dependent on a number of factors. For example, our HCV products, Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi, represent a significant change in the treatment paradigm for HCV-infected patients due to the shortened duration of treatment and the elimination of pegylated interferon injection and ribavirin in most patient populations. Because these products represent a cure and competitors’ HCV products have entered the market and will continue to enter the market, revenues from our HCV products are difficult for us and investors to estimate. The primary driver of our HCV product revenues is patient starts, followed by market share, average treatment duration and price. In our experience, the number of patient starts is very difficult to accurately predict. In addition, demand for Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi will depend on the extent of reimbursement of our HCV products by private and public payers in the United States and other countries. Private and public payers can choose to exclude Epclusa, Harvoni or Sovaldi from their formulary coverage lists or limit the types of patients for whom coverage will be provided, which would negatively impact the demand for

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and revenues of Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi. We continue to experience pricing pressure in the United States, the European Union, Japan and other countries. Any change in the formulary coverage, reimbursement levels or discounts or rebates offered on our HCV products to payers may negatively impact our anticipated revenues. In addition, because rebate claims for product discounts are made by payers one or two quarters in arrears, we estimate the rebates we will be required to pay in connection with sales during a particular quarter based on claims data from prior quarters. In the first quarter of 2016, we received higher than expected prior quarter rebate claims. This had the effect of lowering our revenue for the quarter. Because HCV-related revenues are difficult to predict, investors may have widely varying expectations that may be materially higher or lower than our actual or anticipated revenues. To the extent our actual or anticipated HCV product revenues exceed or fall short of these expectations, our stock price may experience significant volatility.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, approximately 88% of our product sales in the United States were to three wholesalers, McKesson Corp., AmerisourceBergen Corp., and Cardinal Health, Inc. The U.S. wholesalers with whom we have entered into inventory management agreements make estimates to determine end user demand and may not be completely effective in matching their inventory levels to actual end user demand. As a result, changes in inventory levels held by those wholesalers can cause our operating results to fluctuate unexpectedly if our sales to these wholesalers do not match end user demand. In addition, inventory is held at retail pharmacies and other non-wholesaler locations with whom we have no inventory management agreements and no control over buying patterns. Adverse changes in economic conditions or other factors may cause retail pharmacies to reduce their inventories of our products, which would reduce their orders from wholesalers and, consequently, the wholesalers’ orders from us, even if end user demand has not changed. For example, during the fourth quarter of 2015, strong wholesaler and sub-wholesaler purchases of our HIV products resulted in inventory draw-down by wholesalers and sub-wholesalers in the first quarter of 2016. As inventory in the distribution channel fluctuates from quarter to quarter, we may continue to see fluctuations in our earnings and a mismatch between prescription demand for our products and our revenues.
In addition, the non-retail sector in the United States, which includes government institutions, including state ADAPs, VA, correctional facilities and large health maintenance organizations, tends to be even less consistent in terms of buying patterns and often causes quarter-over-quarter fluctuations that do not necessarily mirror patient demand for our products. Federal and state budget pressures, including sequestration, as well as the annual grant cycles for federal and state funds, may cause purchasing patterns to not reflect patient demand of our products. For example, in the first quarters of certain prior years, we observed large non-retail purchases of our HIV products by a number of state ADAPs that exceeded patient demand. We believe such purchases were driven by the grant cycle for federal ADAP funds. Additionally, during the second half of 2016, we experienced fluctuations in VA new HCV patient starts and purchasing patterns due to VA funding. We expect to continue to experience fluctuations in the purchasing patterns of our non-retail customers which may result in fluctuations in our product sales, revenues and earnings in the future. In light of the global economic downturn and budget crises faced by many European countries, we have observed variations in purchasing patterns induced by cost containment measures in Europe. We believe these measures have caused some government agencies and other purchasers to reduce inventory of our products in the distribution channels, which has decreased our revenues and caused fluctuations in our product sales and earnings. We may continue to see this trend in the future.
We may be required to pay significant damages to Merck as a result of a jury’s finding that we willfully infringed a patent owned by Merck’s Idenix subsidiary.
In December 2013, Idenix, Universita Degli Studi di Cagliari (UDSG), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and L’Université Montpellier II sued us in U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware alleging that the commercialization of sofosbuvir will infringe Idenix’s U.S. Patent No. 7,608,600 (the ’600 patent) and that an interference exists between the ’600 patent and our U.S. Patent No. 8,415,322. Also in December 2013, Idenix and UDSG sued us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts alleging that the commercialization of sofosbuvir will infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 6,914,054 (the ’054 patent) and 7,608,597 (the ’597 patent). In June 2014, the court transferred the Massachusetts litigation to the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware. Idenix was acquired by Merck in August 2014.
A jury trial was held in December 2016 on the ’597 patent. In December 2016, the jury found that we willfully infringed the asserted claims of the ’597 patent and awarded Idenix $2.54 billion in past damages. The parties will file post-trial motions and briefings during the first quarter of 2017, and we expect the judge to rule in the third or fourth quarter of 2017. Once the judge has issued these rulings, the case will move to the U.S. Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit.
Although we cannot predict with certainty the ultimate outcome of this litigation, we believe the jury verdict to be in error, and that errors were also made by the court with respect to certain rulings made before and during trial. We expect that our arguments in the forthcoming post-trial motions and on appeal will focus on one or more of the arguments we made to the judge and jury, those being (i) when properly construed, Gilead does not infringe the claims of the ’597 patent, (ii) the patent is invalid for failure to properly describe the claimed invention and (iii) the patent is invalid because it does not enable one of skill in the art to practice the claimed invention.
If the jury’s verdict is upheld on appeal, our estimated potential loss as of December 31, 2016 would include (i) the $2.54 billion determined by the jury, which represents 10% of our adjusted revenues from sofosbuvir containing products from launch

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through August 2016, (ii) approximately $230 million, which represents 10% of our adjusted revenues from sofosbuvir containing products from September 2016 through December 31, 2016, (iii) pre-judgment interest, (iv) enhanced damages of up to three times the sum of (i) and (ii) above as a result of the jury’s finding of willfulness, and (v) attorney’s fees. Therefore, we estimate the range of possible loss through December 31, 2016 to be between zero and $8.5 billion. This sum excludes (i) an immaterial amount related to pre-judgment sales and interest in January 2017, and (ii) going forward royalties yet to be assessed by the court, which we have estimated would be 10%, but which could be up to three times higher as a result of the jury’s finding of willfulness, and which would be payable based on adjusted revenues from sofosbuvir-containing products for the period from January 26, 2017 through expiry of the Idenix patent in May 2021. We expect the judge to rule on the amount of going forward royalties and any enhanced damages in the course of deciding the post-trial motions at a time to be determined by the judge in this case. The court’s determination of enhanced damages, if any, can also be appealed.
If the jury’s verdict is upheld on appeal, the amount we could be required to pay could be material. The timing and magnitude of the amount of any such payment could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and stock price.
Our results of operations may be adversely affected by current and potential future healthcare reforms.
Legislative and regulatory changes to government prescription drug procurement and reimbursement programs occur relatively frequently in the United States and foreign jurisdictions. In the United States, we, along with other pharmaceutical manufacturers of branded drug products, are required to pay a portion of an industry fee (also known as the branded prescription drug (BPD) fee), calculated based on select government sales during the year as a percentage of total industry government sales. The amount of the annual BPD fee imposed on the pharmaceutical industry as a whole is $3.0 billion in 2016, which will increase to $4.0 billion in 2017, increase to a peak of $4.1 billion in 2018, and then decrease to $2.8 billion in 2019 and thereafter. Our BPD fee expenses were $270 million in 2016, $414 million in 2015 and $590 million in 2014. The BPD fee is not tax deductible.
There has been extensive discussion about a possible repeal or amendment of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) or other government action, which could negatively impact the use and/or reimbursement of our products. In January 2017, Congress voted to adopt a budget resolution for fiscal year 2017, that while not law, is widely viewed as the first step toward the passage of legislation that would repeal certain aspects of the Affordable Care Act. Further, on January 20, 2017, the new administration issued an Executive Order directing federal agencies with authorities and responsibilities under the Affordable Care Act to waive, defer, grant exemptions from, or delay the implementation of any provision of the Affordable Care Act that would impose a fiscal burden on states or a cost, fee, tax, penalty or regulatory burden on individuals, healthcare providers, health insurers, or manufacturers of pharmaceuticals or medical devices. Congress could also consider legislation to replace repealed elements of the Affordable Care Act.
In addition, many states have proposed legislation that seeks to indirectly or directly regulate pharmaceutical drug pricing by requiring biopharmaceutical manufacturers to publicly report proprietary pricing information or to place a maximum price ceiling on pharmaceutical products purchased by state agencies. If such proposed legislation is passed, we may experience additional pricing pressures on our products. Similar bills have been previously introduced at the federal level and we expect that additional legislation may be introduced this year. The potential effect of health insurance market destabilization during ongoing repeal and replace discussions, as well as the impact of potential changes to the way the Medicaid program is financed, will likely affect patients’ sources of insurance and resultant drug coverage. Discussions continue at the federal level regarding policies that would either allow or require the U.S. government to directly negotiate drug prices with pharmaceutical manufacturers for Medicare patients, require manufacturers to pay higher rebates in Medicare Part D, give states more flexibility on drugs that are covered under the Medicaid program, and other policy proposals that could impact reimbursement for our products. Other discussions have centered on legislation that would permit the re-importation of prescription medications from Canada or other countries. It is difficult to predict the impact, if any, of any such legislation on the use and reimbursement of our products in the United States, including the potential for the importation of generic versions of our products.
In addition, state Medicaid programs could request additional supplemental rebates on our products as a result of the increase in the federal base Medicaid rebate. Private insurers could also use the enactment of these increased rebates to exert pricing pressure on our products, and to the extent that private insurers or managed care programs follow Medicaid coverage and payment developments, the adverse effects may be magnified by private insurers adopting lower payment schedules.
Our existing products are subject to reimbursement from government agencies and other third parties. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement pressures may reduce profitability.
Successful commercialization of our products depends, in part, on the availability of governmental and third-party payer reimbursement for the cost of such products and related treatments in the markets where we sell our products. Government health authorities, private health insurers and other organizations generally provide reimbursement. In the United States, the European Union, Japan and other significant or potentially significant markets for our products and product candidates, government authorities and third-party payers are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services. A significant portion of our sales of the majority of our products are subject to significant discounts from list price. See also our risk factor “A

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substantial portion of our revenues is derived from sales of products to treat HCV and HIV. If we are unable to maintain or continue increasing sales of these products, our results of operations may be adversely affected.”
Patient assistance programs for pharmaceutical products have come under increasing scrutiny by governments, legislative bodies and enforcement agencies. These activities may result in actions that have the effect of reducing prices or harming our business or reputation.
Recently, there has been enhanced scrutiny of company-sponsored patient assistance programs, including insurance premium and co-pay assistance programs and donations to third-party charities that provide such assistance. If we, or our vendors or donation recipients, are deemed to have failed to comply with relevant laws, regulations or government guidance in any of these areas, we could be subject to criminal and civil sanctions, including significant fines, civil monetary penalties and exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, actions against executives overseeing our business, and burdensome remediation measures.
In February 2016, we received a subpoena from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts requesting documents related to our support of 501(c)(3) organizations that provide financial assistance to patients, and for our HCV products, documents concerning our provision of financial assistance to patients. Other companies have disclosed similar inquiries. We are cooperating with this inquiry.
It is possible that any actions taken by the U.S. Department of Justice as a result of this inquiry or any future action taken by federal or local governments, legislative bodies and enforcement agencies could result in civil penalties or injunctive relief, negative publicity or other negative actions that could harm our reputation, reduce demand for our products and/or reduce coverage of our products, including by federal health care programs such as Medicare and Medicaid and state health care programs. If any or all of these events occur, our business and stock price could be materially and adversely affected.
Approximately 36% of our product sales occur outside the United States, and currency fluctuations and hedging expenses may cause our earnings to fluctuate, which could adversely affect our stock price.
Because a significant percentage of our product sales are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the Euro and Yen, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. When the U.S. dollar strengthens against these foreign currencies, the relative value of sales made in the respective foreign currency decreases. Conversely, when the U.S. dollar weakens against these currencies, the relative value of such sales increases. Overall, we are a net receiver of foreign currencies and, therefore, benefit from a weaker U.S. dollar and are adversely affected by a stronger U.S. dollar.
We use foreign currency exchange forward and option contracts to hedge a percentage of our forecasted international sales, primarily those denominated in the Euro and Yen. We also hedge certain monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies, which reduces but does not eliminate our exposure to currency fluctuations between the date a transaction is recorded and the date that cash is collected or paid. Foreign currency exchange, net of hedges, had an unfavorable impact of $498 million on our 2016 product sales compared to 2015 and an unfavorable impact of $737 million on our 2015 revenues compared to 2014.
We cannot predict future fluctuations in the foreign currency exchange rates of the U.S. dollar. If the U.S. dollar appreciates significantly against certain currencies and our hedging program does not sufficiently offset the effects of such appreciation, our results of operations will be adversely affected and our stock price may decline.
Additionally, the expenses that we recognize in relation to our hedging activities can also cause our earnings to fluctuate. The level of hedging expenses that we recognize in a particular period is impacted by the changes in interest rate spreads between the foreign currencies that we hedge and the U.S. dollar.
We face significant competition.
We face significant competition from large global pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, specialized pharmaceutical firms and generic drug manufacturers. Our products compete with other available products based primarily on efficacy, safety, tolerability, acceptance by doctors, ease of patient compliance, ease of use, price, insurance and other reimbursement coverage, distribution and marketing.
Our HCV products, Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi, compete with Viekira Pak (ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir tablets co-packaged with dasabuvir tablets) and Viekira XR (dasabuvir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir) marketed by AbbVie Inc. (AbbVie), Zepatier (elbasvir and grazoprevir) marketed by Merck & Co. Inc. (Merck), Daklinza (daclastavir) marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Olysio (simeprevir) marketed by Janssen Therapeutics. We expect a new short duration, all-oral direct-acting antiviral product to be launched by a competitor in 2017, which may negatively impact our HCV market share.

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Our HIV products compete primarily with products from ViiV, which markets fixed-dose combination products that compete with Descovy, Odefsey, Genvoya, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada. For example, two products marketed by ViiV, Tivicay (dolutegravir), an integrase inhibitor, and Triumeq, a single-tablet triple-combination antiretroviral regimen, have adversely impacted sales of our HIV products. In addition, lamivudine, marketed by ViiV, competes with emtricitabine, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of Emtriva and a component of Genvoya, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada. For Tybost, we compete with ritonavir marketed by AbbVie.
We also face competition from generic HIV products. Generic versions of lamivudine and Combivir (lamivudine and zidovudine) are available in the United States and certain other countries. Generic versions of Sustiva (efavirenz), a component of our Atripla, are now available in Canada and Europe and we anticipate competition from generic efavirenz in the United States in December 2017. We have observed some pricing pressure related to the Sustiva component of our Atripla sales. TDF, one of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada, and the main active pharmaceutical ingredient in Viread, is expected to face generic competition in the United States, the European Union and other countries in 2017. In addition, because emtricitabine, the other active pharmaceutical ingredient of Truvada, faced generic competition in the European Union in 2016, Truvada is also expected to face generic competition in the European Union and other countries outside of the United States in 2017.
Our HBV products, Vemlidy, Viread and Hepsera, face competition from Baraclude (entecavir) marketed by BMS as well as generic entecavir. Our HBV products also compete with Tyzeka/Sebivo (telbivudine) marketed by Novartis.
Zydelig competes with Imbruvica (ibrutinib)‎ marketed by Pharmacyclics LLC (an AbbVie company), Gazyva (obinutuzumab) marketed by Genentech (a member of the Roche Group) and Treanda (bendamustine hydrochloride) marketed by Cephalon, Inc.
Letairis competes with Tracleer (bosentan) and Opsumit (macitentan) marketed by Actelion Pharmaceuticals US, Inc. and also with Adcirca (tadalafil) marketed by United Therapeutics Corporation and Pfizer.
Ranexa competes predominantly with generic compounds from three distinct classes of drugs for the treatment of chronic angina in the United States, including generic and/or branded beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and long-acting nitrates.
Cayston competes with Tobi (tobramycin inhalation solution) marketed by Novartis.
Tamiflu competes with Relenza (zanamivir) marketed by GSK and products sold by generic competitors.
AmBisome competes with Vfend (voriconazole) marketed by Pfizer and caspofungin, a product developed by Merck that is marketed as Cancidas in the United States and as Caspofungin elsewhere. In addition, we are aware of at least three lipid formulations that claim similarity to AmBisome becoming available outside of the United States. These formulations may reduce market demand for AmBisome. Furthermore, the manufacture of lipid formulations of amphotericin B is very complex and if any of these formulations are found to be unsafe, sales of AmBisome may be negatively impacted by association.
In addition, a number of companies are pursuing the development of technologies which are competitive with our existing products or research programs. These competing companies include specialized pharmaceutical firms and large pharmaceutical companies acting either independently or together with other pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private organizations conducting research may seek patent protection and may establish collaborative arrangements for competitive products or programs. If any of these competitors gain market share on our products, it could adversely affect our results of operations and stock price.
If significant safety issues arise for our marketed products or our product candidates, our future sales may be reduced, which would adversely affect our results of operations.
The data supporting the marketing approvals for our products and forming the basis for the safety warnings in our product labels were obtained in controlled clinical trials of limited duration and, in some cases, from post-approval use. As our products are used over longer periods of time by many patients with underlying health problems, taking numerous other medicines, we expect to continue to find new issues such as safety, resistance or drug interaction issues, which may require us to provide additional warnings or contraindications on our labels or narrow our approved indications, each of which could reduce the market acceptance of these products.
Regulatory authorities have been moving towards more active and transparent pharmacovigilance and are making greater amounts of stand-alone safety information and clinical trial data directly available to the public through websites and other means, e.g. periodic safety update report summaries, risk management plan summaries and various adverse event data. Safety information, without the appropriate context and expertise, may be misinterpreted and lead to misperception or legal action which may potentially cause our product sales or stock price to decline.
Further, if serious safety, resistance or drug interaction issues arise with our marketed products, sales of these products could be limited or halted by us or by regulatory authorities and our results of operations would be adversely affected.

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Our operations depend on compliance with complex FDA and comparable international regulations. Failure to obtain broad approvals on a timely basis or to maintain compliance could delay or halt commercialization of our products.
The products we develop must be approved for marketing and sale by regulatory authorities and, once approved, are subject to extensive regulation by FDA, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and comparable regulatory agencies in other countries. We are continuing clinical trials for many of our products for currently approved and additional uses. We anticipate that we will file for marketing approval in additional countries and for additional indications and products over the next several years. These products may fail to receive such marketing approvals on a timely basis, or at all.
Further, how we manufacture and sell our products is subject to extensive regulation and review. Discovery of previously unknown problems with our marketed products or problems with our manufacturing, safety reporting or promotional activities may result in restrictions on our products, including withdrawal of the products from the market. If we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, including those related to promotion and manufacturing, we could be subject to penalties including fines, suspensions of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products and criminal prosecution.
For example, under FDA rules, we are often required to conduct post-approval clinical studies to assess a known serious risk, signals of serious risk or to identify an unexpected serious risk and implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy for our products, which could include a medication guide, patient package insert, a communication plan to healthcare providers or other elements as FDA deems are necessary to assure safe use of the drug, which could include imposing certain restrictions on the distribution or use of a product. Failure to comply with these or other requirements, if imposed on a sponsor by FDA, could result in significant civil monetary penalties and our operating results may be adversely affected.
The results and anticipated timelines of our clinical trials are uncertain and may not support continued development of a product candidate, which would adversely affect our prospects for future revenue growth.
We are required to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of products that we develop for each intended use through extensive preclinical studies and clinical trials. The results from preclinical and early clinical studies do not always accurately predict results in later, large-scale clinical trials. Even successfully completed large-scale clinical trials may not result in marketable products. For example, during 2016 we announced that we terminated our Phase 2 and 2b studies of simtuzumab for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, NASH and primary sclerosing cholangitis, our Phase 2 and 2/3 studies of GS-5745 for the treatment of Crohn’s Disease and ulcerative colitis, our Phase 2 studies of selonsertib for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and diabetic kidney disease, and our studies of eleclazine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, after determining that study data showed insufficient evidence of treatment benefit. In addition, after completion of two Phase 3 studies of momelotinib for the treatment of myelofibrosis, we have decided to terminate development of momelotinib. If any of our product candidates fails to achieve its primary endpoint in clinical trials, if safety issues arise or if the results from our clinical trials are otherwise inadequate to support regulatory approval of our product candidates, commercialization of that product candidate could be delayed or halted. In addition, we may also face challenges in clinical trial protocol design.
If the clinical trials for any of the product candidates in our pipeline are delayed or terminated, our prospects for future revenue growth would be adversely impacted. For example, we face numerous risks and uncertainties with our product candidates, including the single-tablet regimen of bictegravir, emtricitabine and TAF for the treatment of HIV infection; Descovy for PrEP; selonsertib for the treatment of NASH; idelalisib for the treatment of relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia; GS-5745 for the treatment of gastric cancer; and filgotinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, each currently in Phase 3 clinical trials, that could prevent completion of development of these product candidates. These risks include our ability to enroll patients in clinical trials, the possibility of unfavorable results of our clinical trials, the need to modify or delay our clinical trials or to perform additional trials and the risk of failing to obtain FDA and other regulatory body approvals. As a result, our product candidates may never be successfully commercialized. Further, we may make a strategic decision to discontinue development of our product candidates if, for example, we believe commercialization will be difficult relative to other opportunities in our pipeline. If these programs and others in our pipeline cannot be completed on a timely basis or at all, then our prospects for future revenue growth may be adversely impacted. In addition, clinical trials involving our commercial products could raise new safety issues for our existing products, which could in turn decrease our revenues and harm our business.
Due to our reliance on third-party contract research organizations to conduct our clinical trials, we are unable to directly control the timing, conduct, expense and quality of our clinical trials.
We extensively outsource our clinical trial activities and usually perform only a small portion of the start-up activities in-house. We rely on independent third-party contract research organizations (CROs) to perform most of our clinical studies, including document preparation, site identification, screening and preparation, pre-study visits, training, program management and bioanalytical analysis. Many important aspects of the services performed for us by the CROs are out of our direct control. If there is any dispute or disruption in our relationship with our CROs, our clinical trials may be delayed. Moreover, in our regulatory submissions, we rely on the quality and validity of the clinical work performed by third-party CROs. If any of our CROs’ processes,

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methodologies or results were determined to be invalid or inadequate, our own clinical data and results and related regulatory approvals could be adversely affected.
We depend on relationships with other companies for sales and marketing performance, development and commercialization of product candidates and revenues. Failure to maintain these relationships, poor performance by these companies or disputes with these companies could negatively impact our business.
We rely on a number of significant collaborative relationships with major pharmaceutical companies for our sales and marketing performance in certain territories. These include collaborations with Janssen for Odefsey and Complera/Eviplera; BMS for Atripla in the United States, Europe and Canada; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (together with Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Roche) for Tamiflu worldwide; and GSK for ambrisentan in territories outside of the United States. In some countries, we rely on international distributors for sales of Truvada, Viread, Hepsera, Emtriva and AmBisome. Some of these relationships also involve the clinical development of these products by our partners. Reliance on collaborative relationships poses a number of risks, including the risk that:
we are unable to control the resources our corporate partners devote to our programs or products;
disputes may arise with respect to the ownership of rights to technology developed with our corporate partners;
disagreements with our corporate partners could cause delays in, or termination of, the research, development or commercialization of product candidates or result in litigation or arbitration;
contracts with our corporate partners may fail to provide significant protection or may fail to be effectively enforced if one of these partners fails to perform;
our corporate partners have considerable discretion in electing whether to pursue the development of any additional products and may pursue alternative technologies or products either on their own or in collaboration with our competitors;
our corporate partners with marketing rights may choose to pursue competing technologies or to devote fewer resources to the marketing of our products than they do to products of their own development; and
our distributors and our corporate partners may be unable to pay us, particularly in light of current economic conditions.
Given these risks, there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding the success of our current and future collaborative efforts. If these efforts fail, our product development or commercialization of new products could be delayed or revenues from products could decline.
In addition, Letairis and Cayston are distributed through third-party specialty pharmacies, which are pharmacies specializing in the dispensing of medications for complex or chronic conditions that may require a high level of patient education and ongoing counseling. The use of specialty pharmacies requires significant coordination with our sales and marketing, medical affairs, regulatory affairs, legal and finance organizations and involves risks, including but not limited to risks that these specialty pharmacies will:
not provide us with accurate or timely information regarding their inventories, patient data or safety complaints;
not effectively sell or support Letairis or Cayston;
not devote the resources necessary to sell Letairis or Cayston in the volumes and within the time frames that we expect;
not be able to satisfy their financial obligations to us or others; or
cease operations.
We also rely on a third party to administer our Letairis Education and Access Program, the restricted distribution program designed to support Letairis. This third party provides information and education to prescribers and patients on the risks of Letairis, confirms insurance coverage and investigates alternative sources of reimbursement or assistance, ensures fulfillment of the risk management requirements mandated for Letairis by FDA and coordinates and controls dispensing to patients through the third-party specialty pharmacies. Failure of this third party or the specialty pharmacies that distribute Letairis to perform as expected may result in regulatory action from FDA or decreased Letairis sales, either of which would harm our business.
Our success will depend to a significant degree on our ability to defend our patents and other intellectual property rights both domestically and internationally. We may not be able to obtain effective patents to protect our technologies from use by competitors and patents of other companies could require us to stop using or pay for the use of required technology.
Patents and other proprietary rights are very important to our business. Our success will depend to a significant degree on our ability to:
obtain patents and licenses to patent rights;

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preserve trade secrets;
defend against infringement and efforts to invalidate our patents; and
operate without infringing on the intellectual property of others.
If we have a properly drafted and enforceable patent, it can be more difficult for our competitors to use our technology to create competitive products and more difficult for our competitors to obtain a patent that prevents us from using technology we create. As part of our business strategy, we actively seek patent protection both in the United States and internationally and file additional patent applications, when appropriate, to cover improvements in our compounds, products and technology.
We have a number of U.S. and foreign patents, patent applications and rights to patents related to our compounds, products and technology, but we cannot be certain that issued patents will be enforceable or provide adequate protection or that pending patent applications will result in issued patents. Patent applications are confidential for a period of time before a patent is issued. As a result, we may not know if our competitors filed patent applications for technology covered by our pending applications or if we were the first to invent or first to file an application directed toward the technology that is the subject of our patent applications. Competitors may have filed patent applications or received patents and may obtain additional patents and proprietary rights that block or compete with our products. In addition, if competitors file patent applications covering our technology, we may have to participate in litigation, interference or other proceedings to determine the right to a patent. Litigation, interference or other proceedings are unpredictable and expensive, such that, even if we are ultimately successful, our results of operations may be adversely affected by such events.
For example, TDF, one of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in Stribild, Complera/Eviplera, Atripla and Truvada, and the main active pharmaceutical ingredient in Viread, is expected to face generic competition in the United States, the European Union and other countries in 2017. In addition, because emtricitabine, the other active pharmaceutical ingredient of Truvada, faced generic competition in the European Union in 2016, Truvada is also expected to face generic competition in the European Union and other countries outside of the United States in 2017. The entry of these generic products may lead to market share and price erosion and have a negative impact on our business and results of operations. In addition, patents do not cover the ranolazine compound, the active ingredient of Ranexa. Instead, when it was discovered that only a sustained-release formulation of ranolazine would achieve therapeutic plasma levels, patents were obtained on those formulations and the characteristic plasma levels they achieve. Patents do not cover the active ingredients in AmBisome.
We may obtain patents for certain products many years before marketing approval is obtained for those products. Because patents have a limited life, which may begin to run prior to the commercial sale of the related product, the commercial value of the patent may be limited. However, we may be able to apply for patent term extensions or supplementary protection certificates in some countries.
Generic manufacturers have sought, and may continue to seek, FDA approval to market generic versions of our products through an abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), the application form typically used by manufacturers seeking approval of a generic drug. See a description of our ANDA litigation in Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and risk factor entitled “Litigation with generic manufacturers has increased our expenses which may continue to reduce our earnings. If we are unsuccessful in all or some of these lawsuits, some or all of our claims in the patents may be narrowed or invalidated and generic versions of our products could be launched prior to our patent expiry.” beginning on page 39.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to operate without infringing upon the patents or other proprietary rights of third parties.
If we infringe the valid patents of third parties, we may be prevented from commercializing products or may be required to obtain licenses from these third parties. We may not be able to obtain alternative technologies or any required license on reasonable terms or at all. If we fail to obtain these licenses or alternative technologies, we may be unable to develop or commercialize some or all of our products. For example, we are aware of patents that may relate to our operation of LEAP, our restricted distribution program designed to support Letairis and we are aware of patents and patent applications owned by other parties that may claim to cover the use of sofosbuvir. We are also aware of U.S. Patent No. 9044509 assigned to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that purports to claim a process of protecting a primate host from infection by an immunodeficiency retrovirus by administering a combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir or TDF prior to exposure of the host to the immunodeficiency retrovirus. We have been in contact with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services about the scope and relevance of the patent. See also a description of our litigation regarding sofosbuvir in Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the risk factor entitled “If any party is successful in establishing exclusive rights to Epclusa, Harvoni and/or Sovaldi, our expected revenues and earnings from the sale of those products could be adversely affected” beginning on page 36.
Furthermore, we also rely on unpatented trade secrets and improvements, unpatented internal know-how and technological innovation. For example, a great deal of our liposomal manufacturing expertise, which is a key component of our liposomal

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technology, is not covered by patents but is instead protected as a trade secret. We protect these rights mainly through confidentiality agreements with our corporate partners, employees, consultants and vendors. These agreements provide that all confidential information developed or made known to an individual during the course of their relationship with us will be kept confidential and will not be used or disclosed to third parties except in specified circumstances. In the case of employees, the agreements provide that all inventions made by an individual while employed by us will be our exclusive property. We cannot be certain that these parties will comply with these confidentiality agreements, that we have adequate remedies for any breach or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or be independently discovered by our competitors. Under some of our R&D agreements, inventions become jointly owned by us and our corporate partner and in other cases become the exclusive property of one party. In certain circumstances, it can be difficult to determine who owns a particular invention and disputes could arise regarding those inventions. If our trade secrets or confidential information become known or independently discovered by competitors or if we enter into disputes over ownership of inventions, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If any party is successful in establishing exclusive rights to Epclusa, Harvoni and/or Sovaldi, our expected revenues and earnings from the sale of those products could be adversely affected.
We own patents and patent applications that claim sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) as a chemical entity and its metabolites and the fixed-dose combinations of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (Harvoni) and sofosbuvir and velpatasvir (Epclusa). Third parties may have, or may obtain rights to, patents that allegedly could be used to prevent or attempt to prevent us from commercializing Epclusa, Harvoni or Sovaldi. For example, we are aware of patents and patent applications owned by other parties that may be alleged by such parties to cover the use of Epclusa, Harvoni and Sovaldi. We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of intellectual property claims related to Epclusa, Harvoni or Sovaldi, and we have spent, and will continue to spend, significant resources defending against these claims. If third parties successfully obtain valid and enforceable patents, and successfully prove infringement of those patents by Epclusa, Harvoni and/or Sovaldi, we could be prevented from selling sofosbuvir unless we were able to obtain a license under such patents. Such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Interference Proceedings and Litigation with Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Idenix), Universita Degli Studi di Cagliari (UDSG), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and L’Universite Montpellier II
In February 2012, we received notice that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) had declared Interference No. 105,871 (First Idenix Interference) between our U.S. Patent No. 7,429,572 (the ’572 patent) and Idenix’s pending U.S. Patent Application No. 12/131,868 to determine who was the first to invent certain nucleoside compounds. In January 2014, the USPTO Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) determined that Pharmasset and not Idenix was the first to invent the compounds. Idenix has appealed the PTAB’s decisions to the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware, which has stayed that appeal pending the outcome of the appeal of the interference involving Idenix’s U.S. Patent No. 7,608,600 (the ’600 patent) as described below.
In December 2013, after receiving our request to do so, the USPTO declared Interference No. 105,981 (Second Idenix Interference) between our pending U.S. Patent Application No. 11/854,218 and Idenix’s U.S. Patent No. 7,608,600 (the ’600 patent). The ’600 patent includes claims directed to methods of treating HCV with nucleoside compounds. In March 2015, the PTAB determined that Pharmasset and not Idenix was the first to invent the claimed methods of treating HCV. Idenix appealed this decision in both the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware and the U.S. Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit (CAFC). The CAFC heard oral arguments in September 2016, and we are awaiting its decision. We filed a motion to dismiss the appeal in Delaware, and the court has stayed the appeal relating to the Second Idenix Interference.
We believe that the Idenix claims involved in the First and Second Idenix Interferences, and similar U.S. and foreign patents claiming the same compounds, metabolites and uses thereof, are invalid. As a result, we filed an Impeachment Action in the Federal Court of Canada to invalidate Idenix Canadian Patent No. 2,490,191 (the ’191 patent), which is the Canadian patent that corresponds to the ’600 patent. Idenix asserted that the commercialization of Sovaldi in Canada will infringe its ’191 patent and that our Canadian Patent No. 2,527,657, corresponding to our ’572 patent, is invalid. In November 2015, the Canadian court held that Idenix’s patent is invalid and that our patent is valid. Idenix appealed the decision to the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal in November 2015. The appeal hearing was held in January 2017 and we are awaiting the decision.
We filed a similar legal action in Norway in the Oslo District Court seeking to invalidate Idenix’s Norwegian patent corresponding to the ’600 patent. In September 2013, Idenix filed an invalidation action in the Norwegian proceedings against our Norwegian Patent No. 333700, which corresponds to the ’572 patent. In March 2014, the Norwegian court found all claims in the Idenix Norwegian patent to be invalid and upheld the validity of all claims in our patent. Idenix appealed the decision to the Norwegian Court of Appeal. In April 2016, the Court of Appeal issued its decision invalidating the Idenix patent and upholding our patent. Idenix has not filed a further appeal.
In January 2013, we filed a legal action in the Federal Court of Australia seeking to invalidate Idenix’s Australian patent corresponding to the ’600 patent. In April 2013, Idenix asserted that the commercialization of Sovaldi in Australia infringes its Australian patent corresponding to the ’600 patent. In March 2016, the Australian court revoked Idenix’s Australian patent. Idenix has appealed this decision. The appeal hearing was held in November 2016 and we are awaiting the decision.

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In March 2014, the European Patent Office (EPO) granted Idenix European Patent No. 1 523 489 (the ’489 patent), which corresponds to the ’600 patent. The same day that the ’489 patent was granted, we filed an opposition with the EPO seeking to revoke the ’489 patent. An opposition hearing was held in February 2016, and the EPO ruled in our favor and revoked the ’489 patent. Idenix has appealed. In March 2014, Idenix also initiated infringement proceedings against us in the United Kingdom (UK), Germany and France alleging that the commercialization of Sovaldi would infringe the UK, German and French counterparts of the ’489 patent. A trial was held in the UK in October 2014. In December 2014, the High Court of Justice of England and Wales (UK Court) invalidated all challenged claims of the ’489 patent on multiple grounds. Idenix appealed. In November 2016, the appeals court affirmed the UK Court’s decision invalidating Idenix’s patent. In March 2015, the German court in Düsseldorf determined that the Idenix patent was highly likely to be invalid and stayed the infringement proceedings pending the outcome of the opposition hearing held by the EPO in February 2016. Idenix has not appealed this decision of the German court staying the proceedings. Upon Idenix’s request, the French proceedings have been stayed. Idenix has not been awarded patents corresponding to the ’600 patent in Japan or China.
See also our risk factor “We may be required to pay significant damages to Merck as a result of a jury’s finding that we willfully infringed a patent owned by Merck’s Idenix subsidiary.”
Idenix was acquired by Merck in August 2014, and Merck continues to pursue the Idenix claims described herein.
Litigation with Merck
In August 2013, Merck contacted us requesting that we pay royalties on the sales of sofosbuvir and obtain a license to U.S. Patent No. 7,105,499 (the ’499 patent) and U.S. Patent No. 8,481,712 (the ’712 patent), which it co-owns with Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The ’499 and ’712 patents cover compounds which do not include, but may relate to, sofosbuvir. We filed a lawsuit in August 2013 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California seeking a declaratory judgment that the Merck patents are invalid and not infringed. During patent prosecution, Merck amended its patent application in an attempt to cover compounds related to sofosbuvir. Initially, in March 2016, a jury determined that we had not established that Merck’s patents are invalid for lack of written description or lack of enablement and awarded Merck $200 million in damages. However, in June 2016, the court ruled in our favor on our defense of unclean hands and determined that Merck may not recover any damages from us for the ’499 and ’712 patents. The judge has determined that Merck is required to pay our attorney’s fees due to the exceptional nature of this case. The amount of fees owed to us by Merck is yet to be determined by the court.
Merck has filed a notice of appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit regarding the court’s decision on our defense of unclean hands. We appealed the issue relating to the invalidity of Merck’s patent. If the decision on our defense of unclean hands is reversed on appeal and Merck’s patent is upheld, we may be required to pay damages and a royalty on sales of sofosbuvir-containing products following the appeal. In that event, the judge has indicated that she will determine the amount of the royalty, if necessary, at the conclusion of any appeal in this case.
Litigation with the University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota (the University) has obtained Patent No. 8,815,830 (’830 patent), which purports to broadly cover nucleosides with antiviral and anticancer activity.  In August 2016, the University filed a lawsuit against us in the U.S. District Court for the District of Minnesota, alleging that the commercialization of sofosbuvir-containing products infringes the ’830 patent.  We believe that the ’830 patent is invalid and will not be infringed by the continued commercialization of sofosbuvir.
European Patent Claims
In February 2015, several parties filed oppositions in the EPO requesting revocation of our granted European patent covering sofosbuvir that expires in 2028. In October 2016, the EPO upheld the validity of certain claims of our sofosbuvir patent. We anticipate that the challengers will appeal this decision in favor of our patent. The appeal process may take several years.
In January 2016, several parties filed oppositions in the EPO requesting revocation of our granted European patent covering TAF that expires in 2021.
In March 2016, three parties filed oppositions in the EPO requesting revocation of our granted European patent covering cobicistat that expires in 2027.
While we are confident in the strength of our patents, we cannot predict the ultimate outcome of these actions. If we are unsuccessful in defending these oppositions, some or all of our patent claims may be narrowed or revoked and the patent protection for sofosbuvir, TAF and cobicistat in Europe could be substantially shortened or eliminated entirely. If our patents are revoked, and no other European patents are granted covering these compounds, our exclusivity may be based entirely on regulatory exclusivity granted by EMA. Sovaldi has been granted regulatory exclusivity that will prevent generic sofosbuvir from entering the European Union for 10 years following approval of Sovaldi, or January 2024. If we lose exclusivity for Sovaldi prior to 2028, our expected revenues and results of operations could be negatively impacted for the years including and succeeding the year in which such exclusivity is lost, which may cause our stock price to decline.

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Manufacturing problems, including at our third-party manufacturers and corporate partners, could cause inventory shortages and delay product shipments and regulatory approvals, which may adversely affect our results of operations.
In order to generate revenue from our products, we must be able to produce sufficient quantities of our products to satisfy demand. Many of our products are the result of complex manufacturing processes. The manufacturing process for pharmaceutical products is also highly regulated and regulators may shut down manufacturing facilities that they believe do not comply with regulations.
Our products are either manufactured at our own facilities or by third-party manufacturers or corporate partners. We depend on third parties to perform manufacturing activities effectively and on a timely basis for the majority of our solid dose products. In addition, Roche, either by itself or through third parties, is responsible for manufacturing Tamiflu. We, our third-party manufacturers and our corporate partners are subject to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), which are extensive regulations governing manufacturing processes, stability testing, record keeping and quality standards as defined by FDA and EMA. Similar regulations are in effect in other countries.
Our third-party manufacturers and corporate partners are independent entities who are subject to their own unique operational and financial risks which are out of our control. If we or any of these third-party manufacturers or corporate partners fail to perform as required, this could impair our ability to deliver our products on a timely basis or receive royalties or cause delays in our clinical trials and applications for regulatory approval. Further, we may have to write-off the costs of manufacturing any batch that fails to pass quality inspection or meet regulatory approval. In addition, we, our third-party manufacturers and our corporate partners may only be able to produce some of our products at one or a limited number of facilities and, therefore, have limited manufacturing capacity for certain products. To the extent these risks materialize and affect their performance obligations to us, our financial results may be adversely affected.
Our manufacturing operations are subject to routine inspections by regulatory agencies. If we are unable to remedy any deficiencies cited by FDA in these inspections, our currently marketed products and the timing of regulatory approval of products in development could be adversely affected. Further, there is risk that regulatory agencies in other countries where marketing applications are pending will undertake similar additional reviews or apply a heightened standard of review, which could delay the regulatory approvals for products in those countries. If approval of any of our product candidates were delayed or if production of our marketed products was interrupted, our anticipated revenues and our stock price would be adversely affected.
We may not be able to obtain materials or supplies necessary to conduct clinical trials or to manufacture and sell our products, which would limit our ability to generate revenues.
We need access to certain supplies and products to conduct our clinical trials and to manufacture our products. If we are unable to purchase sufficient quantities of these materials or find suitable alternate materials in a timely manner, our development efforts for our product candidates may be delayed or our ability to manufacture our products would be limited, which would limit our ability to generate revenues.
Suppliers of key components and materials must be named in the NDA or MAA filed with FDA, EMA or other regulatory authority for any product candidate for which we are seeking marketing approval, and significant delays can occur if the qualification of a new supplier is required. Even after a manufacturer is qualified by the regulatory authority, the manufacturer must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to ensure full compliance with GMP. Manufacturers are subject to regular, periodic inspections by the regulatory authorities following initial approval. If, as a result of these inspections, a regulatory authority determines that the equipment, facilities, laboratories or processes do not comply with applicable regulations and conditions of product approval, the regulatory authority may suspend the manufacturing operations. If the manufacturing operations of any of the single suppliers for our products are suspended, we may be unable to generate sufficient quantities of commercial or clinical supplies of product to meet market demand, which would in turn decrease our revenues and harm our business. In addition, if delivery of material from our suppliers were interrupted for any reason, we may be unable to ship certain of our products for commercial supply or to supply our products in development for clinical trials. In addition, some of our products and the materials that we utilize in our operations are made at only one facility. For example, we manufacture certain drug product intermediates utilized in AmBisome exclusively at our facilities in San Dimas, California. In the event of a disaster, including an earthquake, equipment failure or other difficulty, we may be unable to replace this manufacturing capacity in a timely manner and may be unable to manufacture AmBisome to meet market needs.
In addition, we depend on a single supplier for amphotericin B, the active pharmaceutical ingredient of AmBisome, and high-quality cholesterol in the manufacture of AmBisome. We also rely on a single source for the active pharmaceutical ingredients found in Letairis and Cayston. Astellas US LLC, which markets Lexiscan in the United States, is responsible for the commercial manufacture and supply of product in the United States and is dependent on a single supplier for the active pharmaceutical ingredient of Lexiscan. Problems with any of the single suppliers we depend on may negatively impact our development and commercialization efforts.

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A significant portion of the raw materials and intermediates used to manufacture our antiviral products are supplied by third-party manufacturers and corporate partners outside of the United States. As a result, any political or economic factors in a specific country or region, including any changes in or interpretations of trade regulations, compliance requirements or tax legislation, that would limit or prevent third parties outside of the United States from supplying these materials would adversely affect our ability to manufacture and supply our antiviral products to meet market needs and have a material and adverse effect on our operating results.
Litigation with generic manufacturers has increased our expenses which may continue to reduce our earnings. If we are unsuccessful in all or some of these lawsuits, some or all of our claims in the patents may be narrowed or invalidated and generic versions of our products could be launched prior to our patent expiry.
As part of the approval process for some of our products, FDA granted us a New Chemical Entity (NCE) exclusivity period during which other manufacturers’ applications for approval of generic versions of our product will not be approved. Generic manufacturers may challenge the patents protecting products that have been granted NCE exclusivity one year prior to the end of the NCE exclusivity period. Generic manufacturers have sought and may continue to seek FDA approval for a similar or identical drug through an ANDA, the application form typically used by manufacturers seeking approval of a generic drug. To seek approval for a generic version of a product having NCE status, a generic manufacturer may submit its ANDA to FDA four years after the branded product’s approval. For sofosbuvir, this date falls in December 2017. Consequently, it is possible that one or more generic manufacturers may file an ANDA for sofosbuvir in December 2017.
Current legal proceedings of significance with some of our generic manufacturers include:
Apotex
In June 2014, we received notice that Apotex Inc. (Apotex) submitted an abbreviated new drug submission (ANDS) to Health Canada requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Truvada and a separate ANDS requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Viread. In the notice, Apotex alleges that three of the patents associated with Truvada and two of the patents associated with Viread are invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by Apotex’s manufacture, use or sale of a generic version of Truvada or Viread. In August 2014, we filed lawsuits against Apotex in the Federal Court of Canada seeking orders of prohibition against approval of these ANDS. A hearing in those cases was held in April 2016. In July 2016, the court issued an order prohibiting the Canadian Minister of Health from approving Apotex’s generic version of our Viread product until the expiry of our patents in July 2017. The court declined to prohibit approval of Apotex’s generic version of our Truvada product. The court’s decision did not rule on the validity of the patents. The launch of Apotex’s generic version of our Truvada product would be at risk of infringement of our patents, including patents that we were unable to assert in the present lawsuit, and liability for our damages. Apotex has appealed the court’s decision.
Teva
In November 2011, December 2011 and August 2012, we received notices that Teva Pharmaceuticals (Teva) submitted an ANDS to the Canadian Minister of Health requesting permission to manufacture and market generic versions of Truvada, Atripla and Viread. In the notices, Teva alleges that the patents associated with Truvada, Atripla and Viread are invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by Teva’s manufacture, use or sale of generic versions of those products. We filed lawsuits against Teva in the Federal Court of Canada seeking an order of prohibition against approval of these applications.
In December 2013, the court issued an order prohibiting the Canadian Minister of Health from approving Teva’s generic versions of our Viread, Truvada and Atripla products until expiry of our patent in July 2017. Teva has appealed that decision. The court’s decision did not rule on the validity of the patents and accordingly the only issue on appeal is whether the Canadian Minister of Health should be prohibited from approving Teva’s products. In November 2016, we and Teva entered into a settlement agreement to resolve the ongoing contested proceedings concerning Teva’s ANDS for generic versions of Truvada, Atripla, and Viread as well as Gilead’s patents associated with Truvada, Atripla, and Viread.
Mylan
In February 2016, we received notice that Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Mylan) submitted an ANDA to FDA requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Tybost (cobicistat). In the notice, Mylan alleges that the patent covering cobicistat is invalid as obvious and that Mylan’s generic product cannot infringe an invalid claim. In March 2016, we filed lawsuits against Mylan in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware and U.S. District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia. In January 2017, we received a letter from Mylan notifying us that it had submitted a duplicate ANDA to FDA for this same product. We are currently evaluating Mylan’s letter. The trial in Delaware is scheduled for January 2018. The patent in suit that covers Tybost is also listed in the Orange Book for Stribild and Genvoya.

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Watson
In February 2015, we received notice that Watson Laboratories, Inc. (Watson) submitted an ANDA to FDA requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Letairis. In the notice, Watson alleges that one of the patents associated with ambrisentan tablets is invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by Watson’s manufacture, use or sale of a generic version of Letairis. In April 2015, we filed a lawsuit against Watson in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey. In January 2017, we reached an agreement with Watson to settle the litigation.
SigmaPharm
In June 2015, we received notice that SigmaPharm Laboratories, LLC (SigmaPharm) submitted an ANDA to FDA requesting permission to manufacture and market a generic version of Letairis. In the notice, SigmaPharm alleges that one of the patents associated with ambrisentan tablets is invalid, unenforceable and/or will not be infringed by SigmaPharm’s manufacture, use or sale of a generic version of Letairis. In June 2015, we filed a lawsuit against SigmaPharm in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey for infringement of our patents. The date for trial against SigmaPharm is not yet set but estimated to occur in the second quarter of 2017.
We cannot predict the ultimate outcome of the foregoing actions and other litigation with generic manufacturers, and we may spend significant resources enforcing and defending these patents. If we are unsuccessful in these lawsuits, some or all of our original claims in the patents may be narrowed or invalidated and the patent protection for Truvada, Viread and Letairis in the United States and Atripla, Truvada and Viread in Canada could be substantially shortened. Further, if all of the patents covering one or more products are invalidated, FDA or the Canadian Minister of Health could approve the requests to manufacture a generic version of such products in the United States or Canada, respectively, prior to the expiration date of those patents. The sale of generic versions of these products earlier than their patent expiration would have a significant negative effect on our revenues and results of operations.
We face credit risks from our Emerging Market and Southern European customers that may adversely affect our results of operations.
We have exposure to customer credit risks in emerging markets and Southern Europe. Southern European product sales to government-owned or supported customers in Southern Europe, specifically Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece have historically been subject to significant payment delays due to government funding and reimbursement practices. This has resulted and may continue to result in days sales outstanding being significantly higher in these countries due to the average length of time that accounts receivable remain outstanding. As of December 31, 2016, our accounts receivable, net in Southern Europe, specifically Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain, totaled approximately $317 million, of which $110 million were greater than 120 days past due, including $45 million greater than 365 days past due.
Historically, receivable balances with certain publicly-owned hospitals accumulate over a period of time and are then subsequently settled as large lump sum payments. This pattern is also experienced by other pharmaceutical companies that sell directly to hospitals. If significant changes were to occur in the reimbursement practices of these European governments or if government funding becomes unavailable, we may not be able to collect on amounts due to us from these customers and our results of operations would be adversely affected.
Imports from countries where our products are available at lower prices and counterfeit versions of our products could have a negative impact on our reputation and business.
Prices for our products are based on local market economics and competition and sometimes differ from country to country. Our sales in countries with relatively higher prices may be reduced if products can be imported into those or other countries from lower price markets. There have been cases in which other pharmaceutical products were sold at steeply discounted prices in the developing world and then re-exported to European countries where they could be re-sold at much higher prices. If this happens with our products, particularly Truvada and Viread, which we have agreed to make available at substantially reduced prices to more than 130 countries participating in our Gilead Access Program, or Atripla and Complera, which Merck and Janssen, respectively, distributes at substantially reduced prices to HIV infected patients in developing countries, our revenues would be adversely affected. In addition, we have established partnerships with India-based generic manufacturers to distribute generic versions of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and TAF, to 112 developing world countries, including India. We expanded these agreements to include rights to Stribild, Tybost and Vitekta. We also entered into agreements with certain India-based generic manufacturers to produce and distribute generic emtricitabine in the developing world, including single-tablet regimens containing emtricitabine and fixed-dose combinations of emtricitabine co-formulated with our other HIV medicines. Starting in 2014, we entered into licensing agreements with India-based generic manufacturers to produce and distribute generic versions of our HCV products to 101 developing countries. If generic versions of our HIV and HCV products under these licenses are then re-exported to the United States, Europe or other markets outside of these developing world countries, our revenues would be adversely affected. We also make our HCV products available in low- and middle-income countries at significantly discounted prices. If the discounted

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HCV products are re-exported from these low- and middle-income countries into the United States or other higher price markets, our revenues could be adversely affected.
In addition, purchases of our products in countries where our selling prices are relatively low for resale in countries in which our selling prices are relatively high may adversely impact our revenues and gross margin and may cause our sales to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. For example, in the European Union, we are required to permit products purchased in one country to be sold in another country. Purchases of our products in countries where our selling prices are relatively low for resale in countries in which our selling prices are relatively high can affect the inventory level held by our wholesalers and can cause the relative sales levels in the various countries to fluctuate from quarter to quarter and not reflect the actual consumer demand in any given quarter. These quarterly fluctuations may impact our earnings, which could adversely affect our stock price and harm our business.
Further, third parties may illegally distribute and sell counterfeit versions of our products, which do not meet the rigorous quality standards of our manufacturing and supply chain. For example, in the first quarter of 2017, bottles of counterfeit drugs labeled under the Harvoni brand name were discovered at a retail pharmacy chain and pharmaceutical wholesalers in Japan. We are investigating this matter and cooperating with the Japanese health ministry. In order to help prevent similar issues in Japan, we accelerated planned changes to our product packaging to make counterfeiting more difficult. We actively take actions to discourage counterfeits of our products around the world, including working with local regulatory and legal authorities to enforce laws against counterfeit drugs. Counterfeit drugs pose a serious risk to patient health and safety. Our reputation and business could suffer as a result of counterfeit drugs sold under our brand name.
Expensive litigation and government investigations have increased our expenses which may continue to reduce our earnings.
We are involved in a number of litigation, investigation and other dispute-related matters that require us to expend substantial internal and financial resources. We expect these matters will continue to require a high level of internal and financial resources for the foreseeable future. These matters have reduced and will continue to reduce our earnings. Please see a description of our litigation, investigation and other dispute-related matters in Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The outcome of such lawsuits or any other lawsuits that may be brought against us, the investigations or any other investigations that may be initiated, are inherently uncertain, and adverse developments or outcomes can result in significant expenses, monetary damages, penalties or injunctive relief against us that could significantly reduce our earnings and cash flows and harm our business.
In some countries, we may be required to grant compulsory licenses for our products or our patents may not be enforced.
In a number of developing countries, government officials and other interested groups have suggested that pharmaceutical companies should make drugs for HCV or HIV infection available at low cost. Alternatively, governments in those developing countries could require that we grant compulsory licenses to allow competitors to manufacture and sell their own versions of our products, thereby reducing our product sales. For example, there is growing attention on the availability of HCV therapies and some activists are advocating for the increased availability of HCV therapies through other means including compulsory licenses. In the past, certain offices of the government of Brazil have expressed concern over the affordability of our HIV products and declared that they were considering issuing compulsory licenses to permit the manufacture of otherwise patented products for HIV infection, including Viread. In addition, concerns over the cost and availability of Tamiflu related to a potential avian flu pandemic and H1N1 influenza generated international discussions over compulsory licensing of our Tamiflu patents. For example, the Canadian government considered allowing Canadian manufacturers to manufacture and export the active ingredient in Tamiflu to eligible developing and least developed countries under Canada’s Access to Medicines Regime. Furthermore, Roche issued voluntary licenses to permit third-party manufacturing of Tamiflu. For example, Roche granted a sublicense to Shanghai Pharmaceutical (Group) Co., Ltd. for China and a sublicense to India’s Hetero Drugs Limited for India and certain developing countries. If compulsory licenses permit generic manufacturing to override our product patents for our HCV, HIV or other products, or if we are required to grant compulsory licenses for these products, it could reduce our earnings and cash flows and harm our business.
In addition, certain countries do not permit enforcement of our patents, or permit our patents to issue, and third-party manufacturers are able to sell generic versions of our products in those countries. For example, in July 2009, the Brazilian patent authority rejected our patent application for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, the active pharmaceutical ingredient in Viread. This was the highest level of appeal available to us within the Brazilian patent authority. Because we do not currently have a patent in Brazil, the Brazilian government now purchases its supply of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate from generic manufacturers. In the first quarter of 2017, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency rejected our patent applications related to sofosbuvir and our HCV products. We plan to appeal this decision. Sales of generic versions of our products could significantly reduce our sales and adversely affect our results of operations, particularly if generic versions of our products are imported into territories where we have existing commercial sales.

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We may face significant liability resulting from our products that may not be covered by insurance and such liability could materially reduce our earnings.
The testing, manufacturing, marketing and use of our commercial products, as well as product candidates in development, involve substantial risk of product liability claims. These claims may be made directly by consumers, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies or others. We may be unable to maintain sufficient insurance coverage for product liabilities that may arise. In addition, the cost to defend lawsuits or pay damages for product liability claims may exceed our insurance coverage. If we are unable to maintain adequate coverage or if claims exceed our coverage, our financial condition and our ability to clinically test our product candidates and market our products will be adversely affected. In addition, negative publicity associated with any claims, regardless of their merit, may decrease the future demand for our products and impair our financial condition.
Business disruptions from natural or man-made disasters may harm our future revenues.
Our worldwide operations could be subject to business interruptions stemming from natural or man-made disasters for which we may be self-insured. Our corporate headquarters and Fremont locations, which together house a majority of our R&D activities, and our San Dimas and Oceanside manufacturing facilities are located in California, a seismically active region. As we may not carry adequate earthquake insurance and significant recovery time could be required to resume operations, our financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected in the event of a major earthquake.
We are dependent on information technology systems, infrastructure and data.
We are dependent upon information technology systems, infrastructure and data. The multitude and complexity of our computer systems make them inherently vulnerable to service interruption or destruction, malicious intrusion and random attack. Likewise, data privacy or security breaches by employees or others may pose a risk that sensitive data, including our intellectual property, trade secrets or personal information of our employees, patients, customers or other business partners may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public. Cyberattacks are increasing in their frequency, sophistication and intensity. Cyberattacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, denial-of-service, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten data confidentiality, integrity and availability. Our business partners face similar risks and any security breach of their systems could adversely affect our security posture. While we have invested, and continue to invest, in the protection of our data and information technology infrastructure, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent service interruptions, or identify breaches in our systems, that could adversely affect our business and operations and/or result in the loss of critical or sensitive information, which could result in financial, legal, business or reputational harm to us. In addition, our liability insurance may not be sufficient in type or amount to cover us against claims related to security breaches, cyberattacks and other related breaches.
Changes in our effective income tax rate could reduce our earnings.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions including Ireland. Due to economic and political conditions, various countries are actively considering changes to existing tax laws. We cannot predict the form or timing of potential legislative changes that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. In addition, significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. Various factors may have favorable or unfavorable effects on our income tax rate including, but not limited to, changes in forecasted demand for our HCV products, our portion of the non-tax deductible annual BPD fee, the accounting for stock options and other share-based awards, mergers and acquisitions, the ability to manufacture product in our Cork, Ireland facility, the amortization of certain acquisition related intangibles for which we receive no tax benefit, future levels of R&D spending, changes in the mix of earnings in the various tax jurisdictions in which we operate, changes in overall levels of pre-tax earnings and resolution of federal, state and foreign income tax audits. The impact on our income tax provision resulting from the above mentioned factors may be significant and could have a negative impact on our consolidated results of operations.
Our income tax returns are subject to audit by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. We are currently under examination by the Internal Revenue Service for the 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 tax years and by various state and foreign jurisdictions. There are differing interpretations of tax laws and regulations, and as a result, significant disputes may arise with these tax authorities involving issues of the timing and amount of deductions and allocations of income among various tax jurisdictions. Resolution of one or more of these exposures in any reporting period could have a material impact on the results of operations for that period.
If we fail to attract and retain highly qualified personnel, we may be unable to successfully develop new product candidates, conduct our clinical trials and commercialize our product candidates.
Our future success will depend in large part on our continued ability to attract and retain highly qualified scientific, technical and management personnel, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical testing, governmental regulation and commercialization. We face competition for personnel from other companies, universities, public and private research institutions, government entities and other organizations. Competition for qualified personnel in the biopharmaceutical field is intense, and there is a limited pool

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of qualified potential employees to recruit. We may not be able to attract and retain quality personnel on acceptable terms. If we are unsuccessful in our recruitment and retention efforts, our business may be harmed.
There can be no assurance that we will pay dividends or continue to repurchase stock.
Our Board of Directors authorized a dividend program under which we intend to pay quarterly dividends of $0.52 per share, subject to quarterly declarations by our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors also approved the repurchase of up to $12.0 billion of our common stock, of which $9 billion is available for repurchase as of December 31, 2016. Any future declarations, amount and timing of any dividends and/or the amount and timing of such stock repurchases are subject to capital availability and determinations by our Board of Directors that cash dividends and/or stock repurchases are in the best interest of our stockholders and are in compliance with all respective laws and our agreements applicable to the declaration and payment of cash dividends and the repurchase of stock. Our ability to pay dividends and/or repurchase stock will depend upon, among other factors, our cash balances and potential future capital requirements for strategic transactions, including acquisitions, debt service requirements, results of operations, financial condition and other factors beyond our control that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. A reduction in or elimination of our dividend payments, our dividend program and/or stock repurchases could have a negative effect on our stock price.
ITEM  1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM  2.
PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters is located in Foster City, California, where we house our administrative, manufacturing and R&D activities. We also have R&D facilities in Oceanside, California; Fremont, California; Seattle, Washington; and Alberta, Canada and manufacturing facilities in San Dimas, California; Oceanside, California; Alberta, Canada; and Cork, Ireland. Our global operations include offices in Europe, North America, Asia, South America, Africa, Australia, India and the Middle East.
We believe that our existing properties, including both owned and leased sites, are in good condition and suitable for the conduct of our business. We believe our capital resources are sufficient to purchase, lease or construct any additional facilities required to meet our expected long-term growth needs.
ITEM  3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
For a description of our significant pending legal proceedings, please see Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM  4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM  5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “GILD”. The following table sets forth the high and low intra-day sale prices per share of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market for the periods indicated. These prices represent quotations among dealers without adjustments for retail mark-ups, markdowns or commissions and may not represent prices of actual transactions.
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
First Quarter
 
$100.68
 
$81.89
 
$107.77
 
$93.18
Second Quarter
 
$103.10
 
$77.92
 
$123.37
 
$95.38
Third Quarter
 
$88.85
 
$76.67
 
$120.37
 
$86.00
Fourth Quarter
 
$80.00
 
$70.83
 
$111.11
 
$94.37

43



As of February 16, 2017, we had 1,307,066,900 shares of common stock outstanding held by approximately 349 stockholders of record, which include shares held by a broker, bank or other nominee.
Dividends
During 2016, we declared and paid quarterly cash dividends for an aggregate amount of $2.5 billion or $1.84 per common share. During 2015, we initiated a quarterly cash dividend of $0.43 per share that began in the second quarter of 2015 and declared and paid an aggregate amount of $1.9 billion or $1.29 per common share. See Note 13, Stockholders’ Equity of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Performance Graph (1)  
The following graph compares our cumulative total stockholder return for the past five years to two indices: the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index, labeled S&P 500 Index; and the Nasdaq Biotechnology Index, labeled NBI Index. The stockholder return shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we do not make or endorse any predictions as to future stockholder returns.

Comparison of Cumulative Total Return on Investment for the Past Five Years (2)
performancegraph2016.jpg



______________________________________________________ 
Notes:
(1) 
This section is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed “filed” with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.
(2) 
Shows the cumulative return on investment assuming an investment of $100 in our common stock, the NBI Index and the S&P 500 Index on December 30, 2011, and that all dividends were reinvested.

44



Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
In 2016, we repurchased 123 million shares of our common stock for an aggregate purchase price of $11.0 billion, of which $5.0 billion was through an accelerated stock repurchase program and $6.0 billion was through open market transactions.
In February 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a $12.0 billion share repurchase program (2016 Program) under which repurchases may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. We started repurchases under the 2016 Program in April 2016. The table below summarizes our stock repurchase activity under the 2016 Program for the three months ended December 31, 2016:
 
 
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
(in thousands)
 
Average
Price Paid
per Share
(in dollars)
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Program
(in thousands)
 
Maximum Fair
Value of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased Under
the Program
(in millions)
October 1 - October 31, 2016
 
4,722

 
$
74.77

 
4,694

 
$
9,649

November 1 - November 30, 2016
 
4,827

 
$
75.07

 
4,607

 
$
9,304

December 1 - December 31, 2016
 
4,139

 
$
73.55

 
4,128

 
$
9,000

Total
 
13,688

(1) 
$
74.51

 
13,429

(1) 
 
_________________________________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Note:
(1) 
The difference between the total number of shares purchased and the total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced program is due to shares of common stock withheld by us from employee restricted stock awards in order to satisfy applicable tax withholding obligations.


45



ITEM  6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
GILEAD SCIENCES, INC.
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
(in millions, except per share data)
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF INCOME DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues (1)
$
30,390

 
$
32,639

 
$
24,890

 
$
11,202

 
$
9,702

Total costs and expenses (1)
$
12,757

 
$
10,446

 
$
9,625

 
$
6,678

 
$
5,692

Income from operations
$
17,633

 
$
22,193

 
$
15,265

 
$
4,524

 
$
4,010

Provision for income taxes
$
3,609

 
$
3,553

 
$
2,797

 
$
1,151

 
$
1,038

Net income
$
13,488

 
$
18,106

 
$
12,059

 
$
3,057

 
$
2,574

Net income attributable to Gilead
$
13,501

 
$
18,108

 
$
12,101

 
$
3,075

 
$
2,592

Net income per share attributable to Gilead
  common stockholders - basic
$
10.08

 
$
12.37

 
$
7.95

 
$
2.01

 
$
1.71

Shares used in per share calculation - basic
1,339

 
1,464

 
1,522

 
1,529

 
1,515

Net income per share attributable to Gilead
  common stockholders - diluted
$
9.94

 
$
11.91

 
$
7.35

 
$
1.81

 
$
1.64

Shares used in per share calculation - diluted
1,358

 
1,521

 
1,647

 
1,695

 
1,583

Cash dividends declared per share
$
1.84

 
$
1.29

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET DATA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities (2)
$
32,380

 
$
26,208

 
$
11,726

 
$
2,571

 
$
2,582

Working capital (2)
$
11,226

 
$
14,872

 
$
11,953

 
$
590

 
$
1,918

Total assets (2)(3)
$
56,977

 
$
51,716

 
$
34,601

 
$
22,555

 
$
21,202

Other long-term obligations
$
296

 
$
395

 
$
586

 
$
262

 
$
281

Long-term debt, including current portion (2)(3)
$
26,346

 
$
22,055

 
$
12,341

 
$
6,612

 
$
8,186

Retained earnings
$
18,154

 
$
18,001

 
$
12,732

 
$
6,106

 
$
3,705

Total stockholders’ equity
$
19,363

 
$
19,113

 
$
15,819

 
$
11,745

 
$
9,544

_______________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Notes:
 
(1)
See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a description of our results of operations for 2016.
 
 
(2)
During 2016, we issued $5.0 billion principal amount of senior unsecured notes in a registered offering. We also repaid $285 million of principal balance of convertible senior notes due in May 2016 and $700 million of principal balance of senior unsecured notes due in December 2016.
 
 
 
During 2015, we issued $10.0 billion principal amount of senior unsecured notes in a registered offering. We also repaid $213 million of principal balance of convertible senior notes due in May 2016.
 
 
During 2014, we issued $8.0 billion principal amount of senior unsecured notes in registered offerings. We also repaid $912 million of principal balance of convertible senior notes due in May 2014, $750 million of principal balance of senior unsecured notes due in December 2014 and $600 million under our five-year revolving credit facility agreement.
 
 
During 2013, we repaid $1.5 billion of principal balance of convertible senior notes and repaid $150 million under our five-year revolving credit facility agreement.
 
 
During 2012, we completed the acquisition of Pharmasset, Inc. and recognized consideration transferred of $11.1 billion which was primarily recorded in Intangible assets, net. We financed the transaction with approximately $5.2 billion in cash on hand, $2.2 billion in bank debt issued in January 2012 and $3.7 billion in senior unsecured notes issued in December 2011.
 
(3)
In 2016, we retrospectively adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-03 “Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs,” which requires presentation of debt issuance costs as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of a recognized debt liability on the balance sheet. As a result, we reclassified unamortized debt issuance costs from assets to Long-term debt, including current portion for each of the years presented.
 

46



ITEM  7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and other disclosures included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (including the disclosures under Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors). Our Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles and are presented in U.S. dollars.
Management Overview
Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Gilead, we or us), incorporated in Delaware on June 22, 1987, is a research-based biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes innovative medicines in areas of unmet medical need. With each new discovery and investigational drug candidate, we strive to transform and simplify care for people with life-threatening illnesses around the world. We have operations in more than 30 countries worldwide, with headquarters in Foster City, California. Gilead’s primary areas of focus include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, hematology/oncology, cardiovascular and inflammation/respiratory diseases. We seek to add to our existing portfolio of products through our internal discovery and clinical development programs and through product acquisition and in-licensing strategies.
Our portfolio of marketed products includes AmBisome®, Atripla®, Cayston®, Complera®/Eviplera®, Descovy®, Emtriva®, Epclusa®, Genvoya®, Harvoni®, Hepsera®, Letairis®, Odefsey®, Ranexa®, Sovaldi®, Stribild®, Truvada®, Tybost®, Vemlidy®, Viread®, Vitekta®, and Zydelig®. We have U.S. and international commercial sales operations, with marketing subsidiaries in over 30 countries. We also sell and distribute certain products through our corporate partners under royalty-paying collaborative agreements.
2016 Business Highlights
During 2016, we continued to advance our product pipeline across our therapeutic areas with the goal of delivering best-in-class drugs that advance the current standard of care and/or address unmet medical need. Highlights of our 2016 activities include:
Submission of marketing authorization applications for the once-daily, single-tablet regimen of sofosbuvir 400 mg, velpatasvir 100 mg and voxilaprevir 100 mg for the treatment of HCV-infected patients to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission.
FDA and Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) approval of Vemlidy, a once-daily treatment for adults with HBV infection with compensated liver disease.
European Commission approval of marketing authorization for once-daily Truvada in combination with safer-sex practices to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection among uninfected adults at high risk, a strategy known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP.
FDA and European Commission approval of Epclusa, the first all-oral, pan-genotypic, single-tablet regimen for the treatment of adults with genotype 1-6 chronic HCV infection.
FDA and the European Commission approval of two tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based regimens, Odefsey and Descovy, a fixed-dose combination for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Purchase of Nimbus Apollo, Inc. (Nimbus), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nimbus Therapeutics, and its Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor program. The Nimbus program includes the lead candidate NDI-010976, an ACC inhibitor, and other pre-clinical ACC inhibitors for the potential treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatocellular carcinoma and other diseases.
Closed on a license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos NV (Galapagos), a clinical-stage biotechnology company based in Belgium, for the development and commercialization of filgotinib, a JAK1-selective inhibitor being investigated for inflammatory disease indications.
2016 Financial Highlights
During 2016, total revenues decreased to $30.4 billion and total product sales decreased to $30.0 billion, compared to $32.6 billion and $32.2 billion in 2015, respectively, primarily due to lower sales of Harvoni and Sovaldi, partially offset by sales of Epclusa and TAF-based products, Genvoya, Descovy and Odefsey. In the United States, product sales were $19.3 billion in 2016, compared to $21.2 billion in 2015. In Europe, product sales were $6.1 billion in 2016, compared to $7.2 billion in 2015. In Japan, product sales were $2.5 billion, compared to $1.9 billion in 2015. Sales in other international locations were $2.1 billion in 2016, compared to $1.9 billion in 2015.

47



Research and development (R&D) expenses increased 69% to $5.1 billion for 2016 compared to 2015, primarily due to the overall progression of clinical studies, including ongoing milestone payments, our purchase of an FDA priority review voucher, up-front collaboration expenses related to our license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos and our purchase of Nimbus. In addition, we recorded in-process R&D (IPR&D) impairment charges related to momelotinib and simtuzumab.
Selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses were $3.4 billion for 2016 and 2015. Declines in our branded prescription drug (BPD) fee expense were offset by higher costs to support new product launches and our geographic expansion.
Net income attributable to Gilead for 2016 was $13.5 billion or $9.94 per diluted share, compared to $18.1 billion or $11.91 per diluted share in 2015, primarily due to lower product sales and higher R&D expenses. Year-over-year earnings per share were favorably impacted by our share repurchase activities. During 2016, we repurchased a total of 123 million shares for $11.0 billion, of which 54 million shares or $5.0 billion were repurchased under an accelerated stock repurchase program.
As of December 31, 2016, we had $32.4 billion of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, compared to $26.2 billion as of December 31, 2015. This increase was primarily due to the issuance of $5.0 billion aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured notes in September 2016 (the 2016 Notes). During 2016, we generated $16.7 billion in operating cash flow, utilized $11.0 billion to repurchase stock and paid cash dividends of $2.5 billion.
Outlook 2017
In 2017, we will continue to maintain our strong operating and financial discipline. From a R&D perspective, we will continue to invest in conducting new and ongoing clinical studies, which support both our existing products and our product candidates. We expect to move forward on a number of late-stage clinical studies for new product candidates, including progress of our Phase 3 studies of selonsertib for NASH. In order to further develop our product pipeline, we will focus on leveraging our capital to pursue external licensing and acquisition opportunities which fit into our long-term strategic plan.
From a commercial perspective, we will continue to focus on supporting the uptake of our recently launched TAF-based regimens and continue to promote the use of our existing commercial products. We also hired a field-based team to promote Truvada for PrEP as we believe it will continue to be an integral part of our growth in HIV in the United States as communities embrace the public health benefits of prevention. In HCV, it is very difficult for us to accurately predict our revenue because HCV is a cure market. We expect patient starts to decline relative to 2016 in all major markets, and this will be the primary driver of our expected decline in total product sales. We also expect product sales to be impacted by the effects of competition on market share and net price, as well as a continued decrease in the average duration of treatment as fewer patients are treated for 24 or 12 weeks and more patients are treated for 8 weeks. While we anticipate HCV revenues in 2017 to decline from prior year levels, there are still many patients to treat and we expect our HCV products to generate significant revenues and cash flows in the future. We will continue to focus on helping HCV patients get diagnosed and into treater care. In addition, we will continue to invest strategically and selectively in educational programs that raise awareness and access to our medications.
We will continue to focus on ensuring patient access to our products around the world. Our progress on all of these initiatives is subject to a number of uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the continuation of an uncertain global macroeconomic environment; additional pricing pressures from payers and competitors; slower than anticipated growth in our HIV franchise; an increase in discounts, chargebacks and rebates due to ongoing contracts and future negotiations with commercial and government payers; market share and price erosion caused by the introduction of generic versions of Truvada outside the United States and Viread later in 2017; inaccuracies in our HCV patient start estimates; potential amendments to the Affordable Care Act or other government action that could have the effect of lowering prices; a larger than anticipated shift in payer mix to more highly discounted payer segment; and volatility in foreign currency exchange rates.

48



2016 Results of Operations
Total Revenues
The following table summarizes the period over period changes in our product sales and royalty, contract and other revenues:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
Change
 
2015
 
Change
 
2014
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product sales
 
$
29,953

 
(7
)%
 
$
32,151

 
31
%
 
$
24,474

Royalty, contract and other revenues
 
437

 
(10
)%
 
488

 
17
%
 
416

Total revenues
 
$
30,390

 
(7
)%
 
$
32,639

 
31
%
 
$
24,890

Product Sales
2016 Compared to 2015
Total product sales were $30.0 billion in 2016, compared to $32.2 billion in 2015, primarily due to a decrease in antiviral product sales.
Antiviral product sales, which include sales of our HIV and other antiviral products and our HCV products, were $27.7 billion in 2016, compared to $30.2 billion in 2015. HIV and other antiviral product sales were $12.9 billion in 2016, compared to $11.1 billion in 2015. The increase was primarily driven by the continued uptake of our TAF-based products, Genvoya, Descovy and Odefsey, partially offset by decreases in sales of tenofovir disoproxil (TDF)-based products. HCV product sales, which consist of Harvoni, Sovaldi and Epclusa, were $14.8 billion in 2016, compared to $19.1 billion in 2015. The declines were due to lower sales of Harvoni and Sovaldi, partially offset by sales of Epclusa, which was launched in 2016 across various locations.
Other product sales, which include sales of Letairis, Ranexa and AmBisome, were $2.2 billion in 2016, an increase of 14% compared to $1.9 billion in 2015.
Of our product sales in 2016, 36% were generated outside the United States. We faced exposure to movements in foreign currency exchange rates, primarily in the Euro and Yen. We used foreign currency exchange contracts to hedge a percentage of our foreign currency exposure. Foreign currency exchange, net of hedges, had an unfavorable impact of $498 million on our 2016 product sales compared to 2015.
We record product sales net of estimated mandatory and supplemental discounts to government payers, in addition to discounts to private payers, including rebates, chargebacks, cash discounts for prompt payment, distributor fees and other related costs. These deductions are generally referred to as gross-to-net deductions and totaled $20.3 billion or 40% of gross product sales in 2016, compared to $18.1 billion or 36% in 2015. Of the $20.3 billion in 2016, $19.1 billion or 38% of gross product sales was related to government and other rebates and chargebacks, and $1.2 billion was related to cash discounts for prompt payment, distributor fees and other related costs. The increase in our 2016 gross-to-net deductions was primarily due to an increase in discounts and a higher percentage of sales to more deeply discounted segments for our HCV products in the United States.
Product sales in the United States decreased by 9% to $19.3 billion in 2016, compared to $21.2 billion in 2015. Declines in sales of our HCV products were partially offset by increases in sales of our HIV and other antiviral products. The increases in the sales of our HIV and other antiviral products were primarily driven by sales of our newly launched TAF-based products and a favorable revision to our rebate reserves of $332 million, primarily related to our TDF-based products. 
Product sales in Europe decreased by 15% to $6.1 billion in 2016, compared to $7.2 billion in 2015, primarily due to lower Harvoni and Sovaldi sales volume. Foreign currency exchange, net of hedges, had an unfavorable impact of $503 million on our product sales in 2016 compared to 2015.
Product sales in Japan, which consist of Sovaldi and Harvoni, increased by 31% to $2.5 billion in 2016, compared to $1.9 billion in 2015. The increase was primarily driven by higher sales volume of Harvoni, which was launched in September 2015, partially offset by a mandatory price reduction of 32% for Sovaldi and Harvoni that was effective April 1, 2016.
Product sales in other international locations increased by 10% to $2.1 billion in 2016, compared to $1.9 billion in 2015, primarily driven by continued launches of our HCV and TAF-based products across various locations.
2015 Compared to 2014
Total product sales were $32.2 billion in 2015, compared to $24.5 billion in 2014, primarily driven by an increase in antiviral product sales.

49



Antiviral product sales were $30.2 billion in 2015, compared to $22.8 billion in 2014. The increase was primarily driven by the launch of Harvoni across various geographies, partially offset by a decline in Sovaldi sales with patients being prescribed Harvoni instead of Sovaldi. HIV products also contributed to the sales increases primarily due to increased sales of our newer HIV single-tablet regimens, Stribild, Complera/Eviplera and Genvoya, partially offset by declines in Atripla sales volumes.
Other product sales, which include sales of Letairis, Ranexa, AmBisome and Zydelig, were $1.9 billion in 2015, an increase of 16% compared to $1.7 billion in 2014.
Of our product sales in 2015, 34% were generated outside the United States. Foreign currency exchange, net of hedges, had an unfavorable impact of $737 million on our 2015 product sales compared to 2014.
Our gross-to-net deductions totaled $18.1 billion or 36% in 2015, compared to $7.3 billion or 23% in 2014. Of the $18.1 billion in 2015, $16.4 billion or 33% of gross product sales was related to government and other rebates and chargebacks, and $1.7 billion was related to cash discounts for prompt payment, distributor fees and other related costs. Our 2015 gross-to-net deductions attributable to our HCV product sales exceeded our overall gross-to-net of 36% in order to obtain formulary status or expand access for patients.
Product sales in the United States increased by 17% to $21.2 billion in 2015, compared to $18.1 billion in 2014, primarily due to sales of Harvoni and increases in sales of Stribild, Truvada and Complera, partially offset by declines in sales of Sovaldi.
Product sales in Europe increased by 39% to $7.2 billion in 2015, compared to $5.1 billion in 2014, primarily due to sales of Harvoni. Foreign currency exchange, net of hedges, had an unfavorable impact of $611 million on our product sales in 2015 compared to 2014.
Product sales in other international locations increased to $3.8 billion in 2015 compared to $1.2 billion in 2014, primarily due to the launch in Japan of Sovaldi in May 2015 and Harvoni in September 2015.
The following table summarizes the period over period changes in our product sales:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
Change
 
2015
 
Change
 
2014
Antiviral products:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HCV products
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harvoni
 
$
9,081

 
(34
)%
 
$
13,864

 
*

 
$
2,127

Sovaldi
 
4,001

 
(24
)%
 
5,276

 
(49
)%
 
10,283

Epclusa
 
1,752

 
*

 

 
*

 

HIV and other antiviral products
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Truvada
 
3,566

 
3
 %
 
3,459

 
4
 %
 
3,340

Atripla
 
2,605

 
(17
)%
 
3,134

 
(10
)%
 
3,470

Stribild
 
1,914

 
5
 %
 
1,825

 
52
 %
 
1,197

Genvoya
 
1,484

 
*

 
45

 
*

 

Complera/Eviplera
 
1,457

 
2
 %
 
1,427

 
16
 %
 
1,228

Viread
 
1,186

 
7
 %
 
1,108

 
5
 %
 
1,058

Odefsey
 
329

 
*

 

 
*

 

Descovy
 
298

 
*

 

 
*

 

Other antiviral
 
72

 
4
 %
 
69

 
(22
)%
 
88

Total antiviral products
 
27,745

 
(8
)%
 
30,207

 
33
 %
 
22,791

Other products:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Letairis
 
819

 
17
 %
 
700

 
18
 %
 
595

Ranexa
 
677

 
15
 %
 
588

 
15
 %
 
510

AmBisome
 
356

 
2
 %
 
350

 
(10
)%
 
388

Zydelig
 
168

 
27
 %
 
132

 
*

 
23

Other
 
188

 
8
 %
 
174

 
4
 %
 
167

Total product sales
 
$
29,953

 
(7
)%
 
$
32,151

 
31
 %
 
$
24,474

_______________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
* Percentage not meaningful

50



The following is additional discussion of our results by product:
Harvoni
Harvoni was approved by FDA in October 2014, by the European Commission in November 2014 and by the Japanese MHLW in July 2015.
Harvoni sales accounted for 33%, 46% and 9% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2016, product sales were $4.9 billion in the United States, $1.8 billion in Europe, $1.8 billion in Japan and $491 million in other international locations. In 2015, product sales were $10.1 billion in the United States, $2.2 billion in Europe, $1.0 billion in Japan and $545 million in other international locations. In 2014, product sales were $2.0 billion in the United States and $103 million in Europe.
In the United States, the decrease in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to lower sales volume and a lower average net selling price, which was partially offset by a favorable revision to our sales return reserve of $181 million recorded during the second quarter of 2016. The number of patients that started treatment with Harvoni in the United States peaked in the first half of 2015, as many warehoused patients initiated treatment after the product launch. In Europe, the decrease in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to lower sales volume and unfavorable foreign currency exchange, net of hedges. In Japan, the increase in 2016 compared to 2015 was driven by higher sales volume, partially offset by a mandatory price reduction of 32% that was effective April 1, 2016. In other international locations, the decrease in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to a lower average net selling price, partially offset by the continued launches of Harvoni across various locations.
The increase in product sales in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to the launch of Harvoni in the United States, Europe and Japan.
Sovaldi
Sovaldi was approved by FDA in December 2013, by the European Commission in January 2014 and by the Japanese MHLW in March 2015.
Sovaldi sales accounted for 14%, 17% and 45% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2016, product sales were $1.9 billion in the United States, $891 million in Europe, $635 million in Japan and $580 million in other international locations. In 2015, product sales were $2.4 billion in the United States, $1.6 billion in Europe, $878 million in Japan and $409 million in other international locations. In 2014, product sales were $8.5 billion in the United States, $1.5 billion in Europe and $230 million in other international locations.
In the United States, the decrease in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to lower sales volume, partially offset by a favorable revision to our sales return reserve of $98 million recorded during the second quarter of 2016. In Europe, the decrease in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to lower sales volume. In Japan, the decrease in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily due to a mandatory price reduction of 32% that was effective April 1, 2016 and lower sales volume. In other international locations, the increase in 2016 compared to 2015 was primarily driven by higher sales volume.
The decrease in product sales in 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily due to volume declines in the United States with patients being prescribed Harvoni instead of Sovaldi, partially offset by volume increases in Japan and Europe due to the launch of Sovaldi.
Epclusa
Epclusa was launched in the United States and Europe in June and July 2016, respectively, and accounted for 6% of our total antiviral product sales. In 2016, product sales were $1.8 billion, primarily driven by sales in the United States of $1.6 billion.
Truvada
Truvada sales accounted for 13%, 11% and 15% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2016, product sales were $2.4 billion in the United States, $913 million in Europe and $269 million in other international locations. In 2015, product sales were $2.1 billion in the United States, $1.1 billion in Europe and $284 million in other international locations. In 2014, product sales were $1.8 billion in the United States, $1.3 billion in Europe and $278 million in other international locations.
Truvada sales increased by 3% to $3.6 billion in 2016, compared to $3.5 billion in 2015, primarily due to a higher average net selling price and higher sales volume in the United States, as a result of the increased usage of Truvada for PrEP. Truvada sales increased by 4% in 2015, compared to $3.3 billion in 2014, primarily due to sales volume growth and an increase in the average net selling price in the United States.

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Atripla
Atripla sales accounted for 9%, 10% and 15% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2016, product sales were $1.9 billion in the United States, $520 million in Europe and $187 million in other international locations. In 2015, product sales were $2.2 billion in the United States, $694 million in Europe and $218 million in other international locations. In 2014, product sales were $2.4 billion in the United States, $888 million in Europe and $225 million in other international locations.
Atripla sales decreased by 17% to $2.6 billion in 2016, compared to $3.1 billion in 2015 and by 10% in 2015, compared to $3.5 billion in 2014, primarily due to declines in sales volume as doctors prescribed newer regimens, including TDF- and TAF-based regimens. The efavirenz component of Atripla, which has a gross margin of zero, comprised $966 million, $1.2 billion and $1.3 billion of our Atripla sales in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
A generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company’s Sustiva (efavirenz) was made available in Canada and Europe in 2013 and will be made available in the United States in 2017. While we have observed some pricing pressure related to the efavirenz component of our Atripla sales, we have not yet observed any meaningful splitting of the Atripla single-tablet regimen.
Stribild
Stribild sales accounted for 7%, 6% and 5% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. In 2016, product sales were $1.5 billion in the United States and $314 million in Europe. In 2015, product sales were $1.5 billion in the United States and $282 million in Europe. In 2014, product sales were $1.0 billion in the United States and $145 million in Europe.
Stribild sales increased by 5% to $1.9 billion in 2016, compared to $1.8 billion in 2015, primarily due to a favorable revision to our rebate reserves of $223 million during the third quarter of 2016, partially offset by lower sales volume as a result of the continued launch of our new TAF-based product, Genvoya. Stribild sales increased by 52% in 2015, compared to $1.2 billion in 2014, primarily due to higher sales volume in the United States and Europe.
TAF-based regimens - Genvoya, Descovy and Odefsey
Genvoya was launched in the United States and Europe in November 2015. Descovy was launched in the United States and Europe in April 2016. Odefsey was launched in the United States in March 2016 and launched in Europe in July 2016.
Our newly launched TAF-based regimens accounted for 8% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016. In 2016, product sales of our TAF-based regimens were $2.1 billion, primarily driven by sales in the United States of $1.8 billion.
Complera/Eviplera
Complera/Eviplera sales accounted for 5% of our total antiviral product sales for 2016, 2015 and 2014. In 2016, product sales were $821 million in the United States and $580 million in Europe. In 2015, product sales were $796 million in the United States and $576 million in Europe. In 2014, product sales were $663 million in the United States and $513 million in Europe.
Complera/Eviplera sales increased by 2% to $1.5 billion in 2016, compared to $1.4 billion in 2015, primarily due to a favorable revision to our rebate reserves of $89 million during the third quarter of 2016. Complera/Eviplera increased by 16% in 2015, compared to $1.2 billion in 2014, driven primarily by higher sales volume in the United States and Europe.
Royalty, Contract and Other Revenues
The following table summarizes the period over period changes in our royalty, contract and other revenues:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
Change 
 
2015
 
Change
 
2014
Royalty, contract and other revenues
 
$
437

 
(10
)%
 
$
488

 
17
%
 
$
416

Royalty, contract and other revenues declined by 10% to $437 million in 2016, compared to $488 million in 2015 and increased by 17% in 2015, compared to $416 million in 2014. The changes were primarily due to royalty revenues from F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd for sales of Tamiflu. The majority of our royalties are recognized in the quarter following the quarter in which the corresponding product sales occur.

52



Cost of Goods Sold and Product Gross Margin
The following table summarizes the period over period changes in our product sales, cost of goods sold and product gross margin:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
Change
 
2015
 
Change
 
2014
Total product sales
 
$
29,953

 
(7
)%
 
$
32,151

 
31
%
 
$
24,474

Cost of goods sold
 
$
4,261

 
6
 %
 
$
4,006

 
6
%
 
$
3,788

Product gross margin
 
86
%
 
 
 
88
%
 
 
 
85
%
Our product gross margin for 2016 decreased compared to 2015 primarily due to changes in product mix, as our HCV product sales decreased as a percentage of total product sales. Our product gross margin for 2015 increased compared to 2014 primarily due to changes in product mix, as Atripla sales, which include the efavirenz component at a gross margin of zero, declined and HCV product sales increased as a percentage of total product sales.
Research and Development Expenses
The following table summarizes the period over period changes in R&D expenses:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
Change
 
2015
 
Change
 
2014
R&D expenses
 
$
5,098

 
69
%
 
$
3,014

 
6
%
 
$
2,854

R&D expenses summarized above consisted primarily of clinical studies performed by contract research organizations, materials and supplies, licenses and fees, up-front payments under collaboration agreements, milestone payments, personnel costs, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation and overhead allocations consisting of various support and facilities-related costs.
We do not track total R&D expenses by product candidate, therapeutic area or development phase. However, we manage our R&D expenses by identifying the R&D activities we anticipate will be performed during a given period and then prioritizing efforts based on scientific data, probability of successful development, market potential, available human and capital resources and other considerations. We continually review our R&D pipeline and the status of development and, as necessary, reallocate resources among the R&D portfolio that we believe will best support the future growth of our business.
The following table provides a breakout of R&D expenses by major cost type:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Clinical studies and outside services
 
$
3,219

 
$
1,634

 
$
1,688

Personnel and infrastructure expenses
 
1,122

 
1,041

 
900

Facilities, IT and other costs
 
325

 
339

 
266

IPR&D impairment charges
 
432

 

 

Total
 
$
5,098

 
$
3,014

 
$
2,854

In 2016, R&D expenses increased $2.1 billion or 69%, compared to 2015, primarily due to increases in clinical studies and outside services expenses of $1.6 billion. The increases in clinical studies and outside services were primarily due to the overall progression of clinical studies, including ongoing milestone payments, our purchase of an FDA priority review voucher, up-front collaboration expenses related to our license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos and our purchase of Nimbus. IPR&D impairment charges were a result of termination of clinical developments for momelotinib and simtuzumab.
In 2015, R&D expenses increased $160 million or 6%, compared to 2014, primarily due to increases in personnel and infrastructure expenses of $141 million and facilities, IT and other costs of $73 million to support our ongoing clinical study activity and geographic expansion. In 2014, clinical studies and outside services included expenses of $350 million for collaboration and acquisition related expenses and the purchase of an FDA priority review voucher.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
The following table summarizes the period over period changes in SG&A expenses:
(In millions, except percentages)
 
2016
 
Change
 
2015
 
Change
 
2014
SG&A expenses
 
$
3,398

 
(1
)%
 
$
3,426

 
15
%
 
$
2,983


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SG&A expenses relate to sales and marketing, finance, human resources, legal and other administrative activities. Expenses are primarily comprised of facilities and overhead costs, outside marketing, advertising and legal expenses, and other general and administrative costs. SG&A expenses also include the BPD fee. In the United States, we, along with other pharmaceutical manufacturers of branded drug products, are required to pay a portion of an industry fee (the BPD fee), which is estimated based on select government sales during each calendar year as a percentage of total industry government sales and is trued-up upon receipt of invoices from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The amount of the annual BPD fee imposed on the pharmaceutical industry as a whole was $3.0 billion in 2016 and will increase to $4.0 billion in 2017.
In 2016, SG&A expenses were flat compared to 2015. Declines in our BPD fee were offset by higher costs to support new product launches and our geographic expansion. The 2016 BPD fee was favorably impacted by a credit of $191 million based on receipt of the IRS invoice.
In 2015, SG&A expenses increased $443 million or 15% compared to 2014, primarily due to an increase of $627 million in headcount-related, marketing and other expenses to support the growth and geographic expansion of our business, partially offset by a decrease in BPD fee of $100 million based on receipt of the IRS invoice.
Our BPD fee expenses were $270 million in 2016, $414 million in 2015 and $590 million in 2014. The BPD fee is not tax deductible.
Interest Expense
In 2016, interest expense increased to $964 million, compared to $688 million in 2015, primarily due to the issuance of $5.0 billion aggregate principal amount of the 2016 Notes and $10.0 billion aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured notes (the 2015 Notes). In 2015, interest expense increased to $688 million, compared to $412 million in 2014, primarily due to the issuance of the 2015 Notes and the issuance of $8.0 billion aggregate principal amount of senior unsecured notes in 2014.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net was $428 million, $154 million and $3 million in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, primarily due to our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities earning a higher yield.
Provision for Income Taxes
Our provision for income taxes was $3.6 billion, $3.6 billion and $2.8 billion in 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The effective tax rate of 21.1%, 16.4% and 18.8% for 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively, differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate of 35% primarily due to earnings from non-U.S. subsidiaries that operate in jurisdictions with lower tax rates than the United States and where the earnings are considered indefinitely reinvested.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We believe that our existing capital resources, supplemented by our cash flows generated from operating activities will be adequate to satisfy our capital needs for the foreseeable future. The following table summarizes our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities and working capital (in millions):
 
 
 
December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
 
$
32,380

 
$
26,208

 
$
11,726

Working capital
 
$
11,226

 
$
14,872

 
$
11,953

Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled $32.4 billion at December 31, 2016, an increase of $6.2 billion or 24% when compared to $26.2 billion at December 31, 2015. During 2016, we generated $16.7 billion in operating cash flow, received $4.9 billion in net proceeds from the 2016 Notes, utilized $11.0 billion to repurchase stock, repaid $985 million principal balance of our senior notes and convertible senior notes and paid cash dividends of $2.5 billion.
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities totaled $26.2 billion at December 31, 2015, an increase of $14.5 billion or 124% when compared to $11.7 billion at December 31, 2014. During 2015, we generated $20.3 billion in operating cash flow, received $9.9 billion in net proceeds from our issuance of senior unsecured notes, utilized $10.0 billion to repurchase stock, utilized $3.9 billion to settle 46 million warrants related to the convertible senior notes due in May 2016 (the Convertible Notes) and paid cash dividends of $1.9 billion.

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Of the total cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities at December 31, 2016, approximately $27.4 billion was generated from operations in foreign jurisdictions and is intended for use in our foreign operations. We do not rely on unrepatriated earnings as a source of funds for our domestic business as we expect to have sufficient cash flow and borrowing capacity in the United States to fund our domestic operational and strategic needs.
Working Capital
Working capital was $11.2 billion at December 31, 2016. The decrease of $3.6 billion from working capital as of December 31, 2015 was primarily due to a decline in cash and cash equivalents, as a result of an increase in our long-term marketable securities.
Working capital was $14.9 billion at December 31, 2015. The increase of $2.9 billion from working capital as of December 31, 2014 was driven primarily by the increase in cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities and an increase in accounts receivable, partially offset by increases in accrued government and other rebates.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flow activities (in millions):
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cash provided by (used in):
 
 

 
 

 
 

Operating activities
 
$
16,669

 
$
20,329

 
$
12,818

Investing activities
 
$
(11,985
)
 
$
(12,475
)
 
$
(1,823
)
Financing activities
 
$
(9,347
)
 
$
(4,963
)
 
$
(3,025
)
Cash Provided by Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities represents the cash receipts and disbursements related to all of our activities other than investing and financing activities. Operating cash flow is derived by adjusting our net income for non-cash items and changes in operating assets and liabilities. Cash provided by operating activities decreased by $3.7 billion to $16.7 billion in 2016 when compared to 2015, primarily due to lower cash receipts as a result of lower product sales and higher cash payments related to accrued government and other rebates and chargebacks. Cash flows from operations may decrease in the future as our HCV product sales are expected to decline.
Cash provided by operating activities increased by $7.5 billion to $20.3 billion in 2015 when compared to 2014, primarily due to higher cash receipts as a result of higher product sales.
Cash Used in Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities primarily consists of net purchases of marketable securities and other investments and our capital expenditures. Cash used in investing activities decreased by $490 million to $12.0 billion in 2016 when compared to 2015, primarily due to lower net purchases of marketable securities, partially offset by other investments related to our license and collaboration agreement with Galapagos.
Cash used in investing activities increased by $10.7 billion to $12.5 billion in 2015 when compared to 2014, primarily due to higher net purchases of marketable securities.
Cash Used in Financing Activities
Cash used in financing activities increased by $4.4 billion to $9.3 billion in 2016 when compared to 2015, primarily due to higher repurchases of our common stock, higher net payments on debt, higher payments of cash dividends and lower proceeds from the issuances of debt. These increases were partially offset by lower payments to settle warrants related to the Convertible Notes.
Cash used in financing activities increased by $1.9 billion to $5.0 billion in 2015 when compared to 2014, primarily due to higher repurchases of our common stock and payments of cash dividends, which began in 2015. These increases were partially offset by lower net payments on debt and higher proceeds from the issuances of debt.
Debt and Credit Facility
Long-Term Obligations
The summary of our borrowings under various financing arrangements is included in Note 11, Debt and Credit Facility of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

55



Debt Financing
In September 2016, we issued our 2016 Notes in the aggregate principal amount of $5.0 billion and in December 2016, repaid $700 million of principal balance related to our senior unsecured notes. In September 2015, we issued our 2015 Notes in the aggregate principal amount of $10.0 billion. We intend to use the net proceeds from the 2016 Notes and 2015 Notes for general corporate purposes, which may include the repayment of debt, working capital, payments of cash dividends, repurchases of our outstanding common stock pursuant to our authorized share repurchase program and future acquisitions. We are required to comply with certain covenants under our notes indentures and as of December 31, 2016, we were not in violation of any covenants.
Convertible Notes Repayment and Warrant Settlements
Our Convertible Notes were partially converted during 2016 and 2015 and on May 1, 2016, the remainder matured. We repaid an aggregate principal balance of $285 million and $213 million during 2016 and 2015, respectively. We also paid in cash $956 million and $784 million during 2016 and 2015, respectively, related to the conversion spread of the Convertible Notes. We received $956 million and $784 million in cash during 2016 and 2015, respectively, from our convertible note hedges related to the Convertible Notes. During 2015, a portion of the warrants related to the Convertible Notes was modified and settled, and in August 2016, the remainder expired. We paid $469 million and $3.9 billion during 2016 and 2015, respectively, to settle the warrants as the average market price of our common stock exceeded the warrants’ exercise price.
Credit Facility
In 2016, we terminated our existing revolving credit facility and entered into a new $2.5 billion, five-year revolving credit facility maturing in May 2021. The facility can be used for working capital requirements and for general corporate purposes, including, without limitation, acquisitions. We are required to comply with certain covenants under the credit agreement and as of December 31, 2016, we were not in violation of any covenants, and no amounts were outstanding under the revolving credit facility.
Capital Return Program
Stock Repurchase Programs
In February 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a $12.0 billion stock repurchase program (2016 Program). Purchases under the 2016 Program may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The 2016 Program commenced after the $15.0 billion stock repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors in January 2015 was completed in the second quarter of 2016. The $5.0 billion stock repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors in May 2014 was completed in the first quarter of 2015. The $5.0 billion repurchase program authorized by our Board of Directors in January 2011 was completed in 2014. As of December 31, 2016, the remaining authorized repurchase amount under the 2016 Program was $9 billion.
The following table summarizes our stock repurchases under the above-described programs (in millions):
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Shares repurchased and retired
 
123

 
95

 
59

Amount
 
$
11,001

 
$
10,002

 
$
5,349

Dividends
On February 7, 2017, we announced that our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.52 per share of our common stock, with a payment date of March 30, 2017 to all stockholders of record as of the close of business on March 16, 2017.
In April 2016, we announced that our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.47 per common share, which became effective for the second quarter of 2016. During 2016, we declared and paid quarterly cash dividends for an aggregate amount of $2.5 billion or $1.84 per common share.
In the second quarter of 2015, we initiated a cash dividend of $0.43 per common share. During 2015, we declared and paid quarterly cash dividends for an aggregate amount of $1.9 billion or $1.29 per share.
Capital Resources
We believe our existing capital resources, supplemented by cash flows generated from our operations, will be adequate to satisfy our capital needs for the foreseeable future. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including but not limited to the following:
the commercial performance of our current and future products;

56



the progress and scope of our R&D efforts, including preclinical studies and clinical trials;
the cost, timing and outcome of regulatory reviews;
the expansion of our sales and marketing capabilities;
the possibility of acquiring additional manufacturing capabilities or office facilities;
the possibility of acquiring other companies or new products;
debt service requirements;
the establishment of additional collaborative relationships with other companies; and
costs associated with the defense, settlement and adverse results of government investigations and litigation, including matters related to sofosbuvir.
We may in the future require additional funding, which could be in the form of proceeds from equity or debt financings. If such funding is required, we cannot guarantee that it will be available to us on favorable terms, if at all.
Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate and base our estimates on historical experience and on various other market specific and other relevant assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates.
We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue Recognition
Product Sales
We recognize revenues from product sales when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. We record product sales net of estimated mandatory and supplemental discounts to government payers, in addition to discounts to private payers, and other related charges. These are generally referred to as gross-to-net deductions and are recorded in the same period the related sales occur. Government and other rebates and chargebacks represent the majority of our gross-to-net deductions and require complex and significant judgment by management. Estimates are assessed each period and updated to reflect current information.
Government and Other Rebates and Chargebacks
Government and other rebates and chargebacks include amounts paid to payers and healthcare providers in the United States, including Medicaid rebates, AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, Veterans Administration and Public Health Service discounts, and other rebates, as well as foreign government rebates. Rebates and chargebacks are based on contractual arrangements or statutory requirements which may vary by product, by payer and individual payer plans.
For qualified programs that can purchase our products through wholesalers or other distributors at a lower contractual price, the wholesalers or distributors charge back to us the difference between their acquisition cost and the lower contractual price. Our consolidated allowances for government and other chargebacks that are payable to our direct customers are classified as reductions of accounts receivable, and totaled $636 million as of December 31, 2016 and $907 million as of December 31, 2015.
Our consolidated allowance for government and other rebates that will be paid to parties other than our direct customers are recorded in Accrued government and other rebates on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, and totaled $5.0 billion as of December 31, 2016 and $4.1 billion as of December 31, 2015.
Our allowances for government and other rebates and chargebacks are estimated based on products sold, historical utilization rates, pertinent third-party industry information, estimated patient population, known market events or trends, channel inventory data and/or other market data. We also consider new information regarding changes in programs’ regulations and guidelines that would impact the amount of the actual rebates and/or our expectations regarding future utilization rates for these programs. We believe that the methodology that we use to estimate our government and other rebates and chargebacks is reasonable and appropriate given the current facts and circumstances. However, actual results may differ significantly from our estimates. During the last

57



three years, our actual government rebates and chargebacks claimed for prior periods have varied by less than 5% from our estimates.
The following table summarizes the consolidated activities and ending balances in our government and other rebates and chargebacks accounts (in millions):
Accrued government and other rebates and chargebacks:
 
Balance at Beginning of Year
 
Decrease/(Increase) to Product Sales
 
Payments
 
Balance at End of Year
Year ended December 31, 2016:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Activity related to 2016 sales
 
$

 
$
19,219

 
$
(13,920
)
 
$
5,299

Activity related to sales prior to 2016
 
5,025

 
(148
)
 
(4,519
)
 
358

Total
 
$
5,025

 
$
19,071

 
$
(18,439
)
 
$
5,657

Year ended December 31, 2015:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Activity related to 2015 sales
 
$

 
$
16,400

 
$
(11,597
)
 
$
4,803

Activity related to sales prior to 2015
 
2,536

 
7

 
(2,321
)
 
222

Total
 
$
2,536

 
$
16,407

 
$
(13,918
)
 
$
5,025

The majority of the increase in allowance for government and other rebates and chargebacks in 2016 compared to 2015 was driven by higher rebates and chargebacks for our HCV products.
Legal Contingencies
We are a party to various legal actions. The most significant of these are described in Note 12, Commitments and Contingencies - Legal Proceedings of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. It is not possible to determine the outcome of these matters. We recognize accruals for such actions to the extent that we conclude that a loss is both probable and reasonably estimable. We accrue for the best estimate of a loss within a range; however, if no estimate in the range is better than any other, then we accrue the minimum amount in the range. If we determine that a loss is reasonably possible and the loss or range of loss can be estimated, we disclose the possible loss.
Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether an exposure is reasonably estimable. Because of the inherent uncertainty and unpredictability related to these matters, accruals are based on what we believe to be the best information available at the time of our assessment, including the legal facts and circumstances of the case, status of the proceedings, applicable law and the views of legal counsel. Upon the final resolution of such matters, it is possible that there may be a loss in excess of the amount recorded, and such amounts could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows or financial position. We periodically reassess these matters when additional information becomes available and adjust our estimates and assumptions when facts and circumstances indicate the need for any changes.
We did not recognize any accruals for such matters as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 as we did not believe losses were probable.
Valuation of Intangible Assets
In conjunction with our business combinations, we have recorded intangible assets primarily related to IPR&D projects. We had total intangible assets of $9.0 billion as of December 31, 2016 and $10.2 billion as of December 31, 2015.
The identifiable intangible assets are measured at their respective fair values as of the acquisition date. The models used in valuing these intangible assets require the use of significant estimates and assumptions including but not limited to:
estimates of revenues and operating profits related to the products or product candidates;
the probability of success for unapproved product candidates considering their stages of development;
the time and resources needed to complete the development and approval of product candidates;
the life of the potential commercialized products and associated risks, including the inherent difficulties and uncertainties in developing a product candidate such as obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals; and
risks related to the viability of and potential alternative treatments in any future target markets.
We believe the fair values used to record intangible assets acquired in connection with a business combination are based upon reasonable estimates and assumptions given the facts and circumstances as of the related valuation dates.

58



Intangible assets related to IPR&D projects are considered to be indefinite-lived until the completion or abandonment of the associated R&D efforts. If and when development is complete, which generally occurs if and when regulatory approval to market a product is obtained, the associated assets would be deemed finite-lived and would then be amortized based on their respective estimated useful lives at that point in time. During the period the assets are considered indefinite-lived, they are not amortized but are tested for impairment on an annual basis as well as between annual tests if we become aware of any events or changes that would indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the IPR&D projects below their respective carrying amounts. The fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets is dependent on assumptions such as the expected timing or probability of achieving the specified milestones, changes in projected revenues or changes in discount rates. Significant judgment is employed in determining these assumptions and changes to our assumptions could have a significant impact on our results of operations in any given period.
In 2016, the estimated fair value of our IPR&D related to momelotinib and simtuzumab was written down to zero due to termination of clinical developments of such programs, and as a result, we recorded impairment charges of $432 million within Research and development expenses on our Consolidated Statements of Income included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives primarily on a straight-line basis. Intangible assets with finite useful lives are reviewed for impairment when facts or circumstances suggest that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable.
Tax Provision
We estimate our income tax provision, including deferred tax assets and liabilities, based on significant management judgment. We evaluate the realization of all or a portion of our deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis. We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets to the amounts that are more likely than not to be realized. We consider future taxable income, ongoing tax planning strategies and our historical financial performance in assessing the need for a valuation allowance. If we expect to realize deferred tax assets for which we have previously recorded a valuation allowance, we will reduce the valuation allowance in the period in which such determination is first made. The valuation allowance was $126 million as of December 31, 2016 and $6 million as of December 31, 2015. The increase of our valuation allowance from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2016 was primarily due to write down of the IPR&D value of momelotinib during 2016.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions including Ireland. Due to economic and political conditions, various countries are actively considering changes to existing tax laws. We cannot predict the form or timing of potential legislative changes that could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. In addition, significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes.
We record liabilities related to uncertain tax positions in accordance with the guidance that clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements by prescribing a minimum recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. An adverse resolution of one or more of these uncertain tax positions in any period could have a material impact on the results of operations for that period.
At December 31, 2016 and 2015, we had total federal, state and foreign unrecognized tax benefits of $1.9 billion and $1.4 billion, respectively. Of the total unrecognized tax benefits, $1.8 billion and $1.3 billion at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, if recognized, would reduce our effective tax rate in the period of recognition. As of December 31, 2016, we do not believe our unrecognized tax benefits will significantly change in the next 12 months. Due to the high degree of uncertainly on the timing of clarification from the IRS and other tax authorities regarding our uncertain tax positions, we are unable to reasonably estimate the period of cash settlement, if any, with the respective tax authorities.
We file federal, state and foreign income tax returns in the United States and in many jurisdictions abroad. For federal income tax purposes, the statute of limitations is open for 2010 and onwards. For certain acquired entities, the statute of limitations is open for all years from inception due to our utilization of their net operating losses and credits carried over from prior years. For California income tax purposes, the statute of limitations is open for 2010 and onwards.
Our income tax returns are subject to audit by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. We are currently under examination by the IRS for the 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 tax years and by various state and foreign jurisdictions. There are differing interpretations of tax laws and regulations, and as a result, significant disputes may arise with these tax authorities involving issues of the timing and amount of deductions and allocations of income among various tax jurisdictions. We periodically evaluate our exposures associated with our tax filing positions.

59



Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any off balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K.
Contractual Obligations
Our contractual obligations consist of debt obligations, operating leases, capital commitments, purchase obligations for active pharmaceutical ingredients and inventory-related items and clinical trials contracts. The following table summarizes our significant enforceable and legally binding obligations, future commitments and obligations related to all contracts that we are likely to continue regardless of the fact that certain of these obligations may be cancelable as of December 31, 2016 (in millions):
 
 
Payments due by Period
Contractual Obligations
 
Total
 
Less than one
year
 
1-3 years
 
3-5 years
 
More than 5
years
Debt (1)
 
$
42,874

 
$
982

 
$
3,769

 
$
6,582

 
$
31,541

Operating lease obligations
 
369

 
75

 
120

 
72

 
102

Capital commitments (2)
 
880

 
536

 
341

 
1

 
2

Purchase obligations (3)(4)
 
2,124

 
1,551

 
505

 
44

 
24

Clinical trials (5)
 
1,737

 
752

 
675

 
204

 
106

Total (6)
 
$
47,984

 
$
3,896

 
$
5,410

 
$
6,903

 
$
31,775

_______________________
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Notes:
(1) 
Debt primarily consisted of senior unsecured notes, including principal and interest payments. Interest payments are incurred and calculated based on terms of the related notes. See Note